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GEORGE BUSH: THE UNAUTHORIZED BIOGRAPHY - PART 1 of 8
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GEORGE BUSH: THE UNAUTHORIZED BIOGRAPHY
Webster Griffin Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin
With this issue of the New Federalist, Vol. V, No. 39, we begin to
serialize the book, "George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography," by Webster
Griffin Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin. This book will soon be published by
"Executive Intelligence Review".
At the heart of any effort at biography is the attempt to discover the
essence of the subject as a human personality. The essential character of
the subject is what the biographer must strive to capture, since this is
the indispensable ingredient that will provide coherence to the entire
story whose unity must be provided by the course of a single human life.
During the preparation of the present work, there was one historical moment
which more than any other delineated the character of George Bush. The
scene was the Nixon White House during the final days of the Watergate
debacle. White House officials, including George Bush, had spent the
morning of that Monday, August 5, 1974 absorbing the impact of Nixon's
notorious "smoking gun" tape, the recorded conversation between Nixon and
his chief of staff, H.R. Haldemann, shortly after the original Watergate
break-in, which could now no longer be withheld from the public. In that
exchange of June 23, 1972, Nixon ordered that the CIA stop the FBI from
further investigating how various sums of money found their way from Texas
and Minnesota via Mexico City to the coffers of the Committee to Re-Elect
the President (CREEP) and thence into the pockets of the "Plumbers"
arrested in the Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate building.
These revelations were widely interpreted as establishing a "prima facie"
case of obstruction of justice against Nixon. That was fine with George,
who sincerely wanted his patron and benefactor Nixon to resign. George's
great concern was that the smoking gun tape called attention to a
money-laundering mechanism which he, together with Bill Liedtke of
Pennzoil, and Robert Mosbacher, had helped to set up at Nixon's request.
When Nixon, in the "smoking gun" tape, talked about "the Texans" and "some
Texas people," Bush, Liedtke, and Mosbacher were among the most prominent
of those referred to. The threat to George's political ambitions was great.
The White House that morning was gripped by panic. Nixon would be gone
before the end of the week. In the midst of the furor, White House
Congressional liaison William Timmons wanted to know if everyone who needed
to be informed had been briefed about the smoking gun transcript. In a
roomful of officials, some of whom were already sipping Scotch to steady
their nerves, Timmons asked Dean Burch, "Dean, does Bush know about the
"Yes," responded Burch.
"Well, what did he do?" inquired Timmons.
"He broke out into assholes and shit himself to death," replied Burch.
In this exchange, which is recorded in Woodward and Bernstein's "The Final
Days," we grasp the essential George Bush, in a crisis, and for all
The thesis of this book is simple: if George Bush were to be re-elected in
November 1992 for a second term as the President of the United States, this
country and the rest of the world would face a catastrophe of gigantic
The necessity of writing this book became overwhelming in the minds of the
authors in the wake of the ghastly slaughter of the Iraq war of
January-February 1991. That war was an act of savage and premeditated
genocide on the part of Bush, undertaken in connivance with a clique in
London which has, in its historical continuity, represented both the worst
enemy of the long-term interests of the American people, and the most
implacable adversary of the progress of the human species.
The authors observed George Bush as the Gulf crisis and the war unfolded,
and had no doubt that his enraged public outbursts constituted real
psychotic episodes, indicative of a deranged mental state that was full of
ominous portent for humanity. The authors were also horrified by the degree
to which their fellow citizens willfully ignored the shocking reality of
these public fits. A majority of the American people proved more than
willing to lend its support to a despicable enterprise of killing.
By their role-call votes of January 12, 1991, the Senate and the House of
Representatives authorized Bush's planned war measures to restore the Emir
of Kuwait, who owns and holds chattel slaves. That vote was a crime against
This book is part of an attempt to help the American people to survive this
terrible crime, both for the sake of the world and for their own sake. It
is intended as a contribution to a process of education that might help to
save the American people from the awesome destruction of a second Bush
presidency. It is further intended as a warning to all citizens that if
they fail to deny Bush a second term, they will deserve what they get after
As this book goes to press, public awareness of the long-term depression of
the American economy is rapidly growing. If Bush were re-elected, he would
view himself as beyond the reach of the American electorate; with the
federal deficit rising over a billion dollars a day, a second Bush
administration would dictate such crushing austerity as to bring the
country to the brink of civil war. Some examples of this point are
described in the last chapter of this book.
Our goal has been to assemble as much of the truth about Bush as possible
within the time constraints imposed by the 1992 election. Time and
resources have not permitted us meticulous attention to certain matters of
detail; we can say, nevertheless, that both our commitment to the truth and
our final product are better than anything anyone else has been able to
muster, including news organizations and intelligence agencies with
capabilities that far surpass our own.
Why do we fight the Bush power cartel with a mere book? We have no
illusions of easy success, but we were encouraged in our work by the hope
that a biography might stimulate opposition to Bush and his policies. It
will certainly pose a new set of problems for those seeking to get Bush
re-elected. For although Bush is now what journalists call a world leader,
no accurate account of his actual career exists in the public domain.
The volume which we submit to the court of world public opinion is, to the
best of our knowledge, the first book-length, unauthorized biography of
George Bush. It is the first approximation of the truth about his life.
This is the first biography worthy of the name, a fact that says a great
deal about the sinister and obsessive secrecy of this personage. None of
the other biographies (including Bush's campaign autobiography) can be
taken seriously; each of these books is a pastiche of lies, distortions and
banalities that run the gamut from campaign panegyric, to the Goebbels Big
Lie, to fake but edifying stories for credulous children. Almost without
exception, the available Bush literature is worthless as a portrait of the
Bush's family pedigree establishes him as a network asset of Brown Brothers
Harriman, one of the most powerful political forces in the United States
during much of the twentieth century, and for many years the largest
private bank in the world. It suffices in this context to think of Averell
Harriman negotiating during World War II in the name of the United States
with Churchill and Stalin, or of the role of Brown Brothers Harriman
partner Robert Lovett in guiding John F. Kennedy's choice of his cabinet,
to begin to see the implications of Senator Prescott Bush's post as
managing partner of this bank. Brown Brothers Harriman networks pervade
government and the mass media. Again and again in the course of the
following pages we will see stories embarrassing to George Bush refused
publication, documents embarrassing to Bush suspiciously disappear, and
witnesses inculpatory to Bush be overtaken by mysterious and conveniently
timed deaths. The few relevant facts which have found their way into the
public domain have necessarily been filtered by this gigantic apparatus.
This pro blem has been compounded by the corruption and servility of
authors, journalists, news executives and publishers who have functioned
more and more as kept advocates for a governmental regime of which Bush has
been a prominent part for a quarter-century.
The Red Studebaker Myth
George Bush wants key aspects of his life to remain covert. At the same
time, he senses that his need for coverup is a vulnerability. The need to
protect this weak flank accounts for the steady stream of fake biographical
material concerning George, as well as the spin given to many studies that
may never mention George directly. Over the past several months, we have
seen a new book about Watergate that pretends to tell the public something
new by fingering Al Haig as Deep Throat, but ignoring the central role of
George Bush and his business partners in the Watergate affair. We have a
new book by Lt. Col. Oliver North which alleges that Reagan knew everything
about the Iran-Contra affair, but that George Bush was not part of North's
chain of command. The latter point merely paraphrases Bush's own lame
excuse that he was "out of the loop" during all those illegal transactions.
During the hearings on the nomination of Robert Gates to become director of
Central Intelligence, nobody had anything new to add about the role of
George Bush, the boss of the National Security Council's Special Situation
Group crisis staff that was a command center for the whole affair. These
charades are peddled to a very credulous public by operatives whose task
goes beyond mere damage control to mind control -- the "MK" in the
government's MK-Ultra operation.
Part of the free ride enjoyed by George Bush during the 1988 elections is
reflected in the fact that at no point in the campaign was there any
serious effort by any of the news organizations to provide the public with
an accurate and complete account of his political career. At least two
biographies of Dukakis appeared which, although hardly critical, were not
uniformly laudatory either. But in the case of Bush, all the public could
turn to was Bush's old 1980 campaign biography and a newer campaign
autobiography, both of them a tissue of lies.
Early in the course of our research for the present volume it became
apparent that all books and most longer articles dealing with the life of
George Bush had been generated from a single print-out of thoroughly
approved "facts" about Bush and his family. We learned that during 1979-80,
Bush aide Pete Roussel attempted to recruit biographers to prepare a life
of Bush based on a collection of press releases, news summaries, and
similar pre-digested material. Most biographical writing about Bush
consists merely of the points from this printout, strung out
chronologically and made into a narrative through the interpretation of
comments, anecdotes, embellishments, or special stylistic devices.
The canonical Bush-approved printout is readily identified. One dead
giveaway is the inevitability with which the hacks out to cover up the
substance of Bush's life refer to a 1947 red Studebaker which George Bush
allegedly drove into Odessa, Texas in 1948. This is the sort of detail
which has been introduced into Bush's real life in a deliberate and
deceptive attempt to humanize his image. It has been our experience that
any text that features a reference to Bush's red Studebaker has probably
been derived from Bush's list of approved facts, and is therefore
practically worthless for serious research into Bush's life. We therefore
assign such texts to the "red Studebaker school" of coverup and
Some examples? This is from Bush's campaign autobiography, "Looking
Forward," ghost-written by his aide Vic Gold: "Heading into Texas in my
Studebaker, all I knew about the state's landscape was what I'd seen from
the cockpit of a Vultee Vibrator during my training days in the Navy." Note
Here is the same moment as recaptured by Bush's crony Fitzhugh Green, a
friend of the Malthusian financier Russell Train, in his "George Bush: An
Intimate Portrait," published after Bush had won the presidency: "He (Bush)
gassed up his 1948 Studebaker, arranged for his wife and son to follow, and
headed for Odessa, Texas." Note #2
Harry Hurt III wrote the following lines in a 1983 Texas magazine article
that was even decorated with a drawing of what apparently is supposed to be
a Studebaker, but which does not look like a Studebaker of that vintage at
all: "When George Herbert Walker Bush drove his battered red Studebaker
into Odessa in the summer of 1948, the town's population, though constantly
increasing with newly-arrived oil field hands, was still under 30,000."
We see that Harry Hurt has more imagination than many Bush biographers, and
his article does provide a few useful facts. More degraded is the version
offered by Richard Ben Kramer, whose biography of Bush is expected to be
published during 1992. Cramer was given the unenviable task of breathing
life once more into the same tired old printout. But the very fact that the
Bush team feels that it requires another biography indicates that it still
feels that it has a potential vulnerability here. Cramer has attempted to
solve his problem by recasting the same old garbage into a frenetic and
hyperkinetic, we would almost say "hyperthyroid" style. The following is
from an excerpt of this forthcoming book that was published in "Esquire" in
June 1991: "In June, after the College World Series and graduation day in
New Haven, Poppy packed up his new red Studebaker (a graduation gift from
Pres), and started driving south." Note #4
Was that Studebaker shiny and new, or old and battered? Perhaps the
printout is not specific on this point; in any case, as we see, our
Joe Hyams's 1991 romance of Bush at war, the "Flight of the Avenger," Note
#5 does not include the obligatory "red Studebaker" reference, but this is
more than compensated for by the most elaborate fawning over other details
of our hero's war service. The publication of "Flight of the Avenger,"
which concentrates on an heroic retelling of Bush's war record, and ignores
all evidence that might tend to puncture this myth, was timed to coincide
with Bush's war with Iraq. This is a vile tract written with the open
assistance of Bush, Barbara Bush, and the White House staff. "Flight of the
Avenger" recalls the practice of totalitarian states according to which a
war waged by the regime should be accompanied by propaganda which depicts
the regime's strong man in a martial posture. In any case, this book deals
with Bush's life up to the end of World War II; we never reach Odessa.
Only one of the full-length accounts produced by the Bush propaganda
machine neglects the red Studebaker story. This is Nicholas King's "George
Bush: A Biography," the first book-length version of Bush's life, produced
as a result of Pete Roussel's efforts for the 1980 campaign. Nicholas King
had served as Bush's spokesman when he was U.S. Ambassador to the United
Nations. King admits in his preface that he can be impugned for writing a
work of the most transparent apologetics: "In retrospect," he says , "this
book may seem open to the charge of puffery, for the view of its subject is
favorable all around." Note #6 Indeed.
Books about Barbara Bush slavishly rehearse the same details from the same
printout. Here is the relevant excerpt from the warmly admiring "Simply
Barbara Bush: A Portrait of America's Candid First Lady," written by Donnie
Radcliffe and published after Bush's 1988 election victory: "With $3,000
left over after he graduated in June, 1948, he headed for Texas in the 1947
red Studebaker his father had given him for graduation after George's car
died on the highway." Note #7
Even foreign journalists attempting to inform their publics about
conditions in the United States have fallen victim to the same old Bush
printout. The German author and reporter Rainer Bonhorst, the former
Washington correspondent of the "Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung," in his
1988 book "George Bush: The New Man in the White House," named a chapter of
this Bush political biography "To Texas in the Red Studebaker." Bonhorst
writes as follows: "Then there was still the matter of the red Studebaker.
It plays -- right after the world war effort -- a central role in the life
history of George Bush. It is the history of his rebellion. The step which
made a careless Texan out of a stiff New Englander, a self-made man out of
a patrician's son, born into wealth.... Thus, George and Barbara Bush, 24
and 23 years old, he having just finished with his studies, she having
prematurely withdrawn from her university and become a mother a few months
earlier, packed their baby and their suitcases and loaded them into their
glaring red Studebaker coupe.
"|'A supermodern, smart car, certainly somewhat loud for the New England
taste,' the Bushes later recalled. But finally it departed towards Texas."
We see that Bonhorst is acutely aware of the symbolic importance assumed by
the red Studebaker in these hagiographic accounts of Bush's life.
What is finally the truth of the matter? There is good reason to believe
that George Bush did not first come to Odessa, Texas, in a red Studebaker.
One knowledgeable source is the well-known Texas oil man and Bush campaign
contributor Oscar Wyatt of Houston. In a recent letter to the "Texas
Monthly," Wyatt specifies that "when people speak of Mr. Bush's humble
beginnings in the oil industry, it should be noted that he rode down to
Texas on Dresser's private aircraft. He was accompanied by his father, who
at that time was one of the directors of Dresser Industries.... I hate it
when people make statements about Mr. Bush's humble beginnings in the oil
industry. It just didn't happen that way," writes Mr. Wyatt. Note #9
Dresser was a Harriman company, and Bush got his start working for one of
its subsidiaries. One history of Dresser Industries contains a photograph
of George Bush with his parents, wife, and infant son "in front of a
Dresser company airplane in West Texas." Note #1 Note #0 Can this be a
photo of Bush's arrival in Odessa during the summer of 1948? In any case,
this most cherished myth of the Bush biographers is very much open to
The Roman Propaganda Machine
Fawning biographies of bloodthirsty tyrants are nothing new in world
literature. The red Studebaker school goes back a long way; these writers
of today can be usefully compared with a certain Gaius Velleius Paterculus,
who lived in the Roman Empire under the emperors Augustus and Tiberius, and
who was thus an approximate contemporary of Jesus Christ. Velleius
Paterculus was an historian and biographer who is known today, if at all,
for his biographical notes on the Emperor Tiberius, which are contained
within Paterculus's history of Rome.
Paterculus, writing under Tiberius, gave a very favorable treatment of
Julius Caesar, and became fulsome when he came to write of Augustus. But
the worst excesses of flattery came in Velleius Paterculus's treatment of
Tiberius himself. Here is part of what he writes about that tyrannical
"Of the transactions of the last sixteen years, which have passed in the
view, and are fresh in the memory of all, who shall presume to give a full
account? ... credit has been restored to mercantile affairs, sedition has
been banished from the forum, corruption from the Campus Martius, and
discord from the senate-house; justice, equity and industry, which had long
lain buried in neglect, have been revived in the state; authority has been
given to the magistrates, majesty to the senate, and solemnity to the
courts of justice; the bloody riots in the theatre have been suppressed,
and all men have had either a desire excited in them, or a necessity
imposed on them, of acting with integrity. Virtuous acts are honored,
wicked deeds are punished. The humble respects the powerful, without
dreading him; the powerful takes precedence of the humble without
condemning him. When were provisions more moderate in price? When were theb
lessings of peace more abundant? Augustan peace, diffused over all the
regions of the east and the west, and all that lies between the south and
the north, preserves every corner of the world free from all dread of
predatory molestation. Fortuitous losses, not only of individuals, but of
cities, the munificence of the prince is ready to relieve. The cities of
Asia have been repaired; the provinces have been secured from the
oppression of their governors. Honor promptly rewards the deserving, and
the punishment of the guilty, if slow, is certain. Interest gives place to
justice, solicitation to merit. For the best of princes teaches his
countrymen to act rightly by his own practice; and while he is the greatest
in power, he is still greater in example.
"Having exhibited a general view of the administration of Tiberius Caesar,
let us now enumerate a few particulars respecting it.... How formidable a
war, excited by the Gallic chief Sacrovir and Julius Florius, did he
suppress, and with such amazing expedition and energy, that the Roman
people learned that they were conquerors, before they knew that they were
at war, and the news of the victory outstripped the news of the danger! The
African war too, perilous as it was, and daily increasing in strength, was
quickly terminated under his auspices and direction...." Note #1 Note #1
All of this was written in praise of the regime that crucified Jesus
Christ, and one of the worst genocidal tyrannies in the history of the
world. Paterculus, we must sadly conclude, was a sycophant of the Tiberius
administration. Some of his themes are close parallels to the propaganda of
today's Bush machine.
In addition to feeding the personality cult of Tiberius, Paterculus also
lavished praise on Lucius Aelius Sejanus, the Prefect of the Praetorian
Guard and for many years Tiberius's number one favorite, second in command,
and likely successor. In many respects Sejanus was not unlike James Baker
III under the Bush regime. While Tiberius spent all of his time in
seclusion on his island of Capri near Naples, Sejanus assumed day to day
control of the vast empire and its 100 million subjects. Paterculus wrote
of Sejanus that he was "a most excellent coadjutor in all the toils of
government ... a man of pleasing gravity, and of unaffected cheerfulness
... assuming nothing to himself." That was the voice of the red Studebaker
school in about 30 A.D. Paterculus should have limited his fawning to
Tiberius himself; somewhat later, the emperor, suspecting a coup plot,
condemned Sejanus and had him torn limb from limb in gruesome retribution.
But why bring up Rome? Some readers may be scandalized by the things that
truth obliges us to record about a sitting president of the United States.
Are we not disrespectful to this high office? No. One of the reasons for
glancing back at Imperial Rome is to remind ourselves that in times of
moral and cultural degradation like our own, rulers of great evil have
inflicted incalculable suffering on humanity. In our modern time of war and
depression, this is once again the case. If Caligula was possible then, who
could claim that the America of the New World Order should be exempt? Let
us therefore tarry for a moment with these old Romans, because they can
show us much about ourselves.
In order to find Roman writers who tell us anything reliable about the
first dozen emperors, we must wait until the infamous Julio-Claudian
dynasty of Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, and
the rest had entirely passed from the scene, to be supplanted by new ruling
houses. Tiberius reigned from 14 to 37 A.D.; Caligula, his designated
successor, from 37 to 41 A.D.; and Nero from 54 to 68 A.D. But the first
accurate account of the crimes of some of these emperors comes from Publius
Cornelius Tacitus in about 115-17 A.D., late in the reign of the emperor
Trajan. It was feasible for Tacitus to write and publish a more realistic
account of the Julio-Claudian emperors because one of the constant themes
of Trajan's propaganda was to glorify himself as an enlightened emperor
through comparison with the earlier series of bloody tyrants.
Tacitus manages to convey how the destructiveness of these emperors in
their pe rsonal lives correlated with their mass executions and their
genocidal economic policies. Tacitus was familiar with the machinery of
Roman Imperial power: he was of senatorial rank, served as consul in Italy
in 97 A.D., and was the governor of the important province of western
Anatolia (today's Turkey) which the Romans referred to simply as Asia.
Tacitus writes of Tiberius: "... his criminal lusts shamed him. Their
uncontrollable activity was worthy of an oriental tyrant. Free-born
children were his victims. He was fascinated by beauty, youthful innocence,
and aristocratic birth. New names for types of perversions were invented.
Slaves were charged to locate and procure his requirements.... It was like
the sack of a captured city."
Tiberius was able to dominate the legislative branch of his government, the
senate, by subversion and terror: "It was, indeed, a horrible feature of
this period that leading senators became informers even on trivial matters
-- some openly, many secretly. Friends and relatives were as suspect as
strangers, old stories as damaging as new. In the Main Square, at a
dinner-party, a remark on any subject might mean prosecution. Everyone
competed for priority in marking down the victim. Sometimes this was
self-defense, but mostly it was a sort of contagion, like an epidemic.... I
realize that many writers omit numerous trials and condemnations, bored by
repetition or afraid that catalogues they themselves have found over-long
and dismal may equally depress their readers. But numerous unrecorded
incidents, which have come to my attention, ought to be known.
"... Even women were in danger. They could not be charged with aiming at
supreme power. So they were charged with weeping: one old lady was executed
for lamenting her son's death. The senate decided this case.... In the same
year the high price of corn nearly caused riots....
"Frenzied with bloodshed, (Tiberius) now ordered the execution of all those
arrested for complicity with Sejanus. It was a massacre. Without
discrimination of sex or age, eminence or obscurity, there they lay, strewn
about -- or in heaps. Relatives and friends were forbidden to stand by or
lament them, or even gaze for long. Guards surrounded them, spying on their
sorrow, and escorted the rotting bodies until, dragged to the Tiber, they
floated away or grounded -- with none to cremate or touch them. Terror had
paralyzed human sympathy. The rising surge of brutality drove compassion
away." Note #1 Note #2
This is the same Tiberius administration so extravagantly praised by
Because of lacunae in the manuscripts of Tacitus's work that have come down
to us, much of what we know of the rule of Caligula (Gaius Caesar, in power
from 37 to 41 A.D.) derives from "The Lives of the Twelve Caesars," a book
by Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus. The character and administration of
Caligula present some striking parallels with the subject of the present
As a stoic, Caligula was a great admirer of his own "immovable rigor." His
motto was "Remember that I have the right to do anything to anybody." He
made no secret of his bloodthirsty vindictiveness. Caligula was a fan of
the green team in the Roman arena, and when the crowd applauded a
charioteer who wore a different color, Caligula cried out, "I wish the
Roman people had but a single neck." At one of his state dinners Caligula
burst into a fit of uncontrollable laughter, and when a consul asked him
what was so funny, he replied that it was the thought that as emperor
Caligula had the power to have the throats of the top officials cut at any
time he chose. Caligula carried this same attitude into his personal life:
whenever he kissed or caressed the neck of his wife or one of his
mistresses, he liked to remark: "Off comes this beautiful head whenever I
give the word."
Above all, Caligula was vindictive. After his death, two notebooks were
found among his personalpapers, one labelled "The Sword" and the other
labelled "The Dagger." These were lists of the persons he had proscribed
and liquidated, and were the forerunners of the enemies lists and
discrediting committee of today. Suetonius frankly calls Caligula "a
monster," and speculates on the pyschological roots of his criminal
disposition: "I think I may attribute to mental weakness the existence of
two exactly opposite faults in the same person, extreme assurance and, on
the other hand, excessive timorousness." Caligula was "full of threats"
against "the barbarians," but at the same time prone to precipitous
retreats and flights of panic. Caligula worked on his "body language" by
"practicing all kinds of terrible and fearsome expressions before a
Caligula built an extension of his palace to connect with the Temple of
Castor and Pollux, and often went there to exhibit himself as an object of
public worship, delighting in being hailed as "Jupiter Latiaris" by the
populace. Later Caligula would officially open temples in his own name.
Caligula was brutal in his intimidation of the senate, whose members he
subjected to open humiliations and covert attacks; many senators were
"secretly put to death." "He often inveighed against all the Senators
alike.... He treated the other orders with like insolence and cruelty."
Suetonius recites whole catalogues of "special instances of his innate
brutality" toward persons of all walks of life. He enjoyed inflicting
torture, and revelled in liquidating political opponents or those who had
insulted or snubbed him in some way. He had a taste for capital executions
as the perfect backdrop for parties and banquets. Caligula also did
everything he could to denigrate the memory of the great men of past
epochs, so that their fame could not eclipse his own: "He assailed mankind
of almost every epoch with no less envy and malice than insolence and
cruelty. He threw down the statues of famous men" and tried to destroy all
the texts of Homer.
Caligula "respected neither his own chastity nor that of any one else." He
was reckless in his extravagance, and soon emptied out the imperial
treasury of all the funds that old Tiberius had squirreled away there.
After that, Caligula tried to replenish his coffers through a system of
spies, false accusations, property seizures, and public auctions. He also
"levied new and unheard-of taxes," to the point that "no class of
commodities was exempt from some kind of tax or other." Caligula taxed all
foodstuffs, took a fortieth of the award in any lawsuit, an eighth of the
daily wages of the porters, and demanded that the prostitutes pay him a
daily fee equal to the average price charged to each individual customer.
(It is rumored that this part of Caligula's career is under study by those
planning George Bush's second term.) Caligula also opened a brothel in his
palace as an additional source of income, which may prefigure today's White
House staff. Among Caligula's more singular hobbies Suetonius includes his
love of rolling and wallowing in piles of gold coins.
Caligula kept his wife, Caesonia (described by Suetonius as "neither
beautiful nor young") with him until the very end. But his greatest
devotion was to his horse, whom he made consul of the Roman state.
Ultimately Caligula fell victim to a conspiracy of the Praetorian Guard,
led by the tribune Gaius Chaerea, a man whom Caligula had taken special
delight in humiliating. Note #1 Note #3
The authors of the present study are convinced that these references to the
depravity of the Roman emperors, and to the records of that depravity
provided by such authors as Tacitus and Suetonius, are directly germane to
our present task of following the career of a member of the senatorial
class of the Anglo-American elite through the various stages of his
formation and ultimate ascent to imperial power. The Roman Imperial model
is germane because the American ruling elite of today is far closer to the
world of Tiberius and Caligula than it is to the world of the American
Revolution or the Constitutional Conventionof 1789. The leitmotif of
modern American presidential politics is unquestionably an imperial theme,
most blatantly expressed by Bush in his sl ogan for 1990, "The New World
Order," and for 1991, the "pax universalis." The central project of the
Bush presidency is the creation and consolidation of a single, universal
Anglo-American (or Anglo-Saxon) empire very directly modelled on the
various phases of the Roman Empire.
The Olympian Delusion
There is one other aspect of the biographical-historical method of the
Graeco-Roman world which we have sought to borrow. Ever since Thucydides
composed his monumental work on the Peloponnesian War, those who have
sought to imitate his style -- with the Roman historian Titus Livius
prominent among them -- have employed the device of attributing long
speeches to historical personages, even when it appears very unlikely that
such lengthy orations could have been made by the protagonists at the time.
This has nothing to do with the synthetic dialogue of current American
political writing, which attempts to present historical events as a series
of trivial and banal soap-opera exchanges, which carry on for such
interminable lengths as to suggest that the authors are getting paid by the
word. Our idea of fidelity to the classical style has simply been to let
George Bush speak for himself wherever possible, through direct quotation.
We are convinced that by letting Bush express himself directly in this way,
we afford the reader a more faithful -- and damning -- account of Bush's
George Bush might agree that "history is biography," although we suspect
that he would not agree with any of our other conclusions. There may be a
few peculiarities of the present work as biography that are worthy of
explanation at the outset.
One of our basic theses is that George Bush is, and considers himself to
be, an oligarch. The notion of oligarchy includes first of all the idea of
a patrician and wealthy family capable of introducing its offspring into
such elite institutions as Andover, Yale, and Skull and Bones. Oligarchy
also subsumes the self-conception of the oligarch as belonging to a
special, exalted breed of mankind, one that is superior to the common run
of mankind as a matter of hereditary genetic superiority. This mentality
generally goes together with a fascination for eugenics, race science and
just plain racism as a means of building a case that one's own family tree
and racial stock are indeed superior. These notions of "breeding" are a
constant in the history of the titled feudal aristocracy of Europe,
especially Britain, towards inclusion in which an individual like Bush must
necessarily strive. At the very least, oligarchs like Bush see themselves
as demigods occupying a middle ground between the immortals above and the
"hoi polloi" below. The culmination of this insane delusion, which Bush has
demonstrably long since attained, is the obsessive belief that the
principal families of the Anglo-American elite, assembled in their
freemasonic orders, by themselves directly constitute an Olympian Pantheon
of living deities who have the capability of abrogating and disregarding
the laws of the universe according to their own irrational caprice. If we
do not take into account this element of fatal and megalomaniac hubris, the
lunatic Anglo-American policies in regard to the Gulf War, international
finance, or the AIDS epidemic must defy all comprehension.
Part of the ethos of oligarchism as practiced by George Bush is the
emphasis on one's own family pedigree. This accounts for the attention we
dedicate in the opening chapters of this book to Bush's family tree,
reaching back to the nineteenth century and beyond. It is impossible to
gain insight into Bush's mentality unless we realize that it is important
for him to be considered a cousin, however distant, of Queen Elizabeth II
of the House of Mountbatten-Windsor and for his wife Barbara to be viewed
in some sense a descendant of President Franklin Pierce.
The Family Firm
For related reasons, it is our special duty to illustrate the role played
in the formation of George Bush as a personality by his maternal
grandfather and uncle, George Herbert Walker and George Herbert Walker,
Jr., and by George H.W. Bush's father, the late Senator Prescott Bush. In
the course of this task, we must speak at length about the institution to
which George Bush owes the most, the Wall Street international investment
bank of Brown Brothers Harriman, the political and financial powerhouse
mentioned above. For George Bush, Brown Brothers Harriman was and remains
the family firm in the deepest sense. The formidable power of this bank and
its ubiquitous network, wielded by Senator Prescott Bush up through the
time of his death in 1972, and still active on George's behalf down to the
present day, is the single most important key to every step of George's
business, covert operations, and political career.
In the case of George Bush, as many who have known him personally have
noted, the network looms much larger than George's own character and will.
The reader will search in vain for strong principled commitments in George
Bush's personality; the most that will be found is a series of
characteristic obsessions, of which the most durable are race, vanity,
personal ambition, and settling scores with adversaries. What emerges by
contrast is the decisive importance of Bush's network of connections. His
response to the Gulf crisis of 1991 will be largely predetermined, not by
any great flashes of geopolitical insight, but rather by his connections to
the British oligarchy, to Kissinger, to Israeli and Zionist circles, to
Texas oilmen in his fundraising base, to the Saudi Arabian and Kuwaiti
royal houses. If the question is one of finance, then the opinions of J.
Hugh Liedtke, Henry Kravis, Robert Mosbacher, T. Boone Pickens, Nicholas
Brady, James Baker III and the City of London will be decisive. If covert
operations and dirty tricks are on the agenda, then there is a whole stable
of CIA old boys with whom he will consult, and so on down the line. During
much of 1989, despite his control over the presidency, Bush appeared as a
weak and passive executive, waiting for his networks to show him what it
was he was supposed to do. When German reunification and the crumbling of
the Soviet empire spurred those -- primarily British -- networks into
action, Bush was suddenly capable of violent and daring adventures. As his
battle for a second term approaches, Bush may be showing increasing signs
of a rage-driven self-starter capability, especially when it comes to
starting new wars designed to secure his re-election.
The United States in Decline
Biography has its own inherent discipline: It must be concerned with the
life of its protagonist, and cannot stray too far away. In no way has it
been our intention to offer an account of American history during the
lifetime of George Bush. The present study nevertheless reflects many
aspects of that recent history of U.S. decline. It will be noted that Bush
has succeeded in proportion as the country has failed, and that Bush's
advancement has proceeded "pari passu" with the degradation of the national
stage upon which he has operated and which he has come to dominate. At
various phases in his career, Bush has come into conflict with persons who
were intellectually and morally superior to him. One such was Senator Ralph
Yarborough, and another was Senator Frank Church. Our study will be found
to catalogue the constant decline in the qualities of Bush's adversaries as
human types until the 1980s, by which time his opponents, as in the case of
Al Haig, are no better than Bush himself.
As for the political relevance of our project, we think that it is very
real. During the Gulf crisis, it would have been important for the public
to know more about Bush's business dealings with the Royal Family of
Kuwait. During the 1992 presidential campaign, as Wall Street's recent crop
of junk-bond assisted leveraged buyouts line up at the entrance to
bankruptcy court, and state workers all across the United States are
informed that the retirement pensions they had been promised will never be
paid, the relations between George Bush and Henry Kravis will surely
constitute an explosive political issue. Similarly, once Bush's British and
Kissingerian pedigree is recognized, the methods he is likely to pursue in
regard to situations such as the planned Romanian-style overthrow of the
Castro regime in Cuba, or the provocation of a splendid little nuclear war
involving North Korea, or of a new Indo-Pakistani war, will hardly be
The authors have been at some pains to make this work intelligible to
readers around the world. We offer this book to those who share our
aversion to the imperialist-colonialist New World Order, and our profound
horror at the concept of a return to a single, worldwide Roman Empire as
suggested by Bush's "pax universalis" slogan. This work is tangible
evidence that there is an opposition to Bush inside the United States, and
that the new Caligula is very vulnerable indeed on the level of the
exposure of his own misdeeds.
It will be argued that this book should have been published before the 1988
election, when a Bush presidency might have been avoided. That is certainly
true, but it is an objection which should also be directed to many
institutions and agencies whose resources far surpass our modest
capabilities. We can only remind our fellow citizens that when he asks for
their votes for his re-election, George Bush also enters that court of
public opinion in which he is obliged to answer their questions. They
should not waste this opportunity to grill him on all aspects of his career
and future intentions, since it is Bush who comes forward appealing for
their support. To aid in this process, we have provided a list of Twenty
Questions for Candidate George Bush on the campaign trail, and this will be
found in the appendix.
We do not delude ourselves that we have said the last word about George
Bush. But we have for the first time sketched out at least some of the most
salient features and gathered them into a comprehensible whole. We
encourage an aroused citizenry, as well as specialized researchers, to
improve upon what we have been able to accomplish. In so doing, we recall
the words of the Florentine Giovanni Boccaccio when he reluctantly accepted
the order of a powerful king to produce an account of the old Roman
Pantheon: "If I don't succeed completely in this exposition, at least I
will provide a stimulus for the better work of others who are wiser." --
Boccaccio, "Genealogy of the National Gods"
"To be continued."
Notes for Chapter 1
1. George Bush and Vic Gold, "Looking Forward," (New York: Doubleday,
1987), p. 47.
2. Fitzhugh Green, "Looking Forward," (New York: Hippocrene, 1989), p. 53.
3. Harry Hurt III, "George Bush, Plucky Lad," "Texas Monthly," June, 1983,
4. Richard Ben Cramer, "How He Got Here," "Esquire," June, 1991, p. 84.
5. Joe Hyams, "Flight of the Avenger" (New York, 1991).
6. Nicholas King, "George Bush: A Biography" (New York, Dodd, Mead, 1980),
7. Donnie Radcliffe, "Simply Barbara Bush," (New York: Warner, 1989), p. 103.
8. Rainer Bonhorst, "George Bush, Der Neue Mann im Weissen Haus," (Bergisch
Gladbach: Gustav Luebbe Verlag, 1988), pp. 80-81.
9. See "The Roar of the Crowd," "Texas Monthly," November, 1991. See also
Jan Jarboe, "Meaner Than a Junkyard Dog," "Texas Monthly," April 1991, p.
122 ff. Here Wyatt observes: "I knew from the beginning George Bush came to
Texas only because he was politically ambitious. He flew out here on an
airplane owned by Dresser Industries. His daddy was a member of the board
10. Darwin Payne, "Initiative in Energy" (New York: Simon and Shuster,
1979), p. 233.
11. John Selby Watson (translator), "Sallust, Florus, and Velleius
Paterculus" (London: George Bell and Son, 1879), pp. 542-46.
12. Cornelius Tacitus, "The Annals of Imperial Rome" (Penguin, 1962), pp.
13. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, "The Lives of the Twelve Caesars" (New
York: Modern Library, 1931), pp. 165-204, " passim.
THE HITLER PROJECT
Bush Property Seized -- Trading with the Enemy
In October 1942, ten months after entering World War II, America was
preparing its first assault against Nazi military forces. Prescott Bush was
managing partner of Brown Brothers Harriman. His 18-year-old son George,
the future U.S. President, had just begun training to become a naval pilot.
On October 20, 1942, the U.S. government ordered the seizure of Nazi German
banking operations in New York City which were being conducted by Prescott
Under the "Trading with the Enemy Act", the government took over the "Union
Banking Corporation," in which Bush was a director. The U.S. Alien Property
Custodian seized Union Banking Corp.'s stock shares, all of which were
owned by Prescott Bush, E. Roland "Bunny" Harriman, three Nazi executives,
and two other associates of Bush. Note #1
The order seizing the bank "vest[ed] [seized] all of the capital stock of
Union Banking Corporation, a New York corporation," and named the holders
of its shares as:
See #b|"E. Roland Harriman -- 3991 shares." Harriman was chairman and
director of Union Banking Corp. (UBC); this is "Bunny" Harriman, described
by Prescott Bush as a place holder who didn't get much into banking
affairs; Prescott managed his personal investments.
See #b|"Cornelis Lievense -- 4 shares." Lievense was president and
director of UBC, and a New York resident banking functionary for the Nazis.
See #b|"Harold D. Pennington -- 1 share." Pennington was treasurer and
director of UBC, and an office manager employed by Bush at Brown Brothers
See #b|"Ray Morris -- 1 share." Morris was director of UBC, and a partner
of Bush and the Harrimans.
See #b|"Prescott S. Bush -- 1 share." Bush was director of UBC, which was
co-founded and sponsored by his father-in-law George Walker; he was senior
managing partner for E. Roland Harriman and Averell Harriman.
See #b|"H.J. Kouwenhoven -- 1 share" Kouwenhoven was director of UBC; he
organized UBC as the emissary of Fritz Thyssen in negotiations with George
Walker and Averell Harriman; he was also managing director of UBC's
Netherlands affiliate under Nazi occupation; industrial executive in Nazi
Germany, and also director and chief foreign financial executive of the
German Steel Trust.
See #b|"Johann G. Groeninger -- 1 share." Groeninger was director of UBC
and of its Netherlands affiliate; he was an industrial executive in Nazi
The order also specified: "all of which shares are held for the benefit of
... members of the Thyssen family, [and] is property of nationals ... of a
designated enemy country...."
By October 26, 1942, U.S. troops were underway for North Africa. On October
28, the government issued orders seizing two Nazi front organizations run
by the Bush-Harriman bank: the "Holland-American Trading Corporation" and
the "Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation." Note #2
U.S. forces landed under fire near Algiers on November 8, 1942; heavy
combat raged throughout November. Nazi interests in the "Silesian-American
Corporation," long managed by Prescott Bush and his father-in-law George
Herbert Walker, were seized under the Trading with the Enemy Act on
November 17, 1942. In this action, the government announced that it was seiz
ing only the Nazi interests, leaving the Nazis' U.S. partners to carry on
the business. Note #3
These and other actions taken by the U.S. government in wartime were,
tragically, too little and too late. President Bush's family had already
played a central role in financing and arming Adolf Hitler for his takeover
of Germany; in financing and managing the buildup of Nazi war industries
for the conquest of Europe and war against the U.S.A.; and in the
development of Nazi genocide theories and racial propaganda, with their
The facts presented here must be known, and their implications reflected
upon, for a proper understanding of President George Herbert Walker Bush
and of the danger to mankind that he represents. The President's family
fortune was largely a result of the Hitler project. The powerful
Anglo-American family associations, which later boosted him into the
Central Intelligence Agency and up to the White House, were his father's
partners in the Hitler project.
President Franklin Roosevelt's Alien Property Custodian, Leo T. Crowley,
signed Vesting Order Number 248 seizing the property of Prescott Bush under
the Trading with Enemy Act. The order, published in obscure government
record books and kept out of the news, Note #4 explained nothing about the
Nazis involved; only that the Union Banking Corporation was run for the
"Thyssen family" of "Germany and/or Hungary" -- "nationals ... of a
designated enemy country."
By deciding that Prescott Bush and the other directors of the Union Banking
Corp. were legally "front men for the Nazis", the government avoided the
more important historical issue: In what way "were Hitler's Nazis
themselves hired, armed, and instructed by" the New York and London clique
of which Prescott Bush was an executive manager? Let us examine the
Harriman-Bush Hitler project from the 1920s until it was partially broken
up, to seek an answer for that question.
2. Origin and Extent of the Project
Fritz Thyssen and his business partners are universally recognized as the
most important German financiers of Adolf Hitler's takeover of Germany. At
the time of the order seizing the Thyssen family's Union Banking Corp., Mr.
Fritz Thyssen had already published his famous book, "I Paid Hitler", Note
#5 admitting that he had financed Adolf Hitler and the Nazi movement since
October 1923. Thyssen's role as the leading early backer of Hitler's grab
for power in Germany had been noted by U.S. diplomats in Berlin in 1932.
Note #6 The order seizing the Bush-Thyssen bank was curiously quiet and
modest about the identity of the perpetrators who had been nailed.
But two weeks before the official order, government investigators had
reported secretly that "W. Averell Harriman was in Europe sometime prior to
1924 and at that time became acquainted with Fritz Thyssen, the German
industrialist." Harriman and Thyssen agreed to set up a bank for Thyssen in
New York. "[C]ertain of [Harriman's] associates would serve as
directors...." Thyssen agent "H.J. Kouwenhoven ... came to the United
States ... prior to 1924 for conferences with the Harriman Company in this
connection...." Note #7
When exactly was "Harriman in Europe sometime prior to 1924"? In fact, he
was in Berlin in 1922 to set up the Berlin branch of W.A. Harriman & Co.
under George Walker's presidency.
The Union Banking Corporation was established formally in 1924, as a unit
in the Manhattan offices of W.A. Harriman & Co., interlocking with the
Thyssen-owned "Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart" (BHS) in the Netherlands.
The investigators concluded that "the Union Banking Corporation has since
its inception handled funds chiefly supplied to it through the Dutch bank
by the Thyssen interests for American investment."
Thus by personal agreement between Averell Harriman and Fritz Thyssen in
1922, W.A. Harriman & Co. (alias Union Banking Corporation) would be
transferring funds back and forth between New York and the "Thyssen
interests" in Germany. By putting up about $400,000, the Harriman
organization would be joint owner and manager of Thyssen's banking
operations outside of Germany.
"How important was the Nazi enterprise for which President Bush's father
was the New York banker?"
The 1942 U.S. government investigative report said that Bush's Nazi-front
bank was an interlocking concern with the Vereinigte Stahlwerke (United
Steel Works Corporation or "German Steel Trust") led by Fritz Thyssen and
his two brothers. After the war, congressional investigators probed the
Thyssen interests, Union Banking Corp. and related Nazi units. The
investigation showed that the Vereinigte Stahlwerke had produced the
following approximate proportions of total German national output: "50.8%
of Nazi Germany's pig iron; 41.4% of Nazi Germany's universal plate; 36.0%
of Nazi Germany's heavy plate; 38.5% of Nazi Germany's galvanized sheet;
45.5% of Nazi Germany's pipes and tubes; 22.1% of Nazi Germany's wire;
35.0% of Nazi Germany's explosives." Note #8
This accounts for many, many Nazi submarines, bombs, rifles, gas chambers, etc.
Prescott Bush became vice president of W.A. Harriman & Co. in 1926. That
same year, a friend of Harriman and Bush set up a giant new organization
for their client Fritz Thyssen, prime sponsor of politician Adolf Hitler.
The new "German Steel Trust," Germany's largest industrial corporation, was
organized in 1926 by Wall Street banker Clarence Dillon. Dillon was the old
comrade of Prescott Bush's father Sam Bush from the "Merchants of Death"
bureau in World War I.
In return for putting up $70 million to create his organization, majority
owner Thyssen gave the Dillon Read company two or more representatives on
the board of the new Steel Trust. Note #9
Thus there is a division of labor: Thyssen's own confidential accounts, for
political and related purposes, were run through the Walker-Bush
organization; the Steel Trust did its corporate banking through Dillon
- * * * -
The Walker-Bush firm's banking activities were not just politically neutral
money-making ventures which happened to coincide with the aims of German
Nazis. All of the firm's European business in those days was organized
around anti-democratic political forces.
In 1927, criticism of their support for totalitarianism drew this retort
from Bert Walker, written from Kennebunkport to Averell Harriman: "It seems
to me that the suggestion in connection with Lord Bearsted's views that we
withdraw from Russia smacks somewhat of the impertinent.... I think that we
have drawn our line and should hew to it." Note #1 Note #0
Averell Harriman met with Italy's fascist dictator, Benito Mussolini. A
representative of the firm subsequently telegraphed good news back to his
chief executive Bert Walker: "... During these last days ... Mussolini ...
has examined and approved our c[o]ntract 15 June." Note #1 Note #1
The great financial collapse of 1929-31 shook America, Germany, and
Britain, weakening all governments. It also made the hard-pressed Prescott
Bush even more willing to do whatever was necessary to retain his new place
in the world. It was in this crisis that certain Anglo-Americans determined
on the installation of a Hitler regime in Germany.
W.A. Harriman & Co., well-positioned for this enterprise and rich in assets
from their German and Russian business, merged with the British-American
investment house, Brown Brothers, on January 1, 1931. Bert Walker retired
to his own G.H. Walker & Co. This left the Harriman brothers, Prescott
Bush, and Thatcher M. Brown as the senior partners of the new Brown
Brothers Harriman firm. (The London, England branch of the Brown family
firm continued operating under its historic name -- Brown, Shipley.)
Robert A. Lovett also came over as a partner from Brown Brothers. His
father, E.H. Harriman's lawyer and railroad chief, had been on the War
Industries Board with Prescott's father. Though he remained a partner in
Brown Brothers Harriman, the junior Lovett soon replaced his father as
chief exexcutive of Union Pacific Railroad.
Brown Brothers had a racial tradition that fitted it well for the Hitler
project. American patriots had cursed its name back in Civil War days.
Brown Brothers, with offices in the U.S.A. and in Engla nd, had carried on
their ships fully 75 percent of the slave cotton from the American South
over to British mill owners; through their usurious credit they controlled
and manipulated the slave-owners.
Now, in 1931, the virtual dictator of world finance, Bank of England
Governor Montagu Collet Norman, was a former Brown Brothers partner, whose
grandfather had been boss of Brown Brothers during the U.S. Civil War.
Montagu Norman was known as the most avid of Hitler's supporters within
British ruling circles, and Norman's intimacy with this firm was essential
to his management of the Hitler project.
In 1931, while Prescott Bush ran the New York office of Brown Brothers
Harriman, Prescott's partner was Montagu Norman's intimate friend Thatcher
Brown. The Bank of England chief always stayed at the home of Prescott's
partner on his hush-hush trips to New York. Prescott Bush concentrated on
the firm's German actitivites, and Thatcher Brown saw to their business in
old England, under the guidance of his mentor Montagu Norman. Note #1 Note
3. Hitler's Ladder to Power
Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany January 30, 1933, and absolute
dictator in March 1933, after two years of expensive and violent lobbying
and electioneering. Two affiliates of the Bush-Harriman organization played
great parts in this criminal undertaking: Thyssen's German Steel Trust; and
the Hamburg-Amerika Line and several of its executives. Note #1 Note #3
Let us look more closely at the Bush family's German partners.
"Fritz Thyssen" told Allied interrogators after the war about some of his
financial support for the Nazi Party: "In 1930 or 1931 ... I told [Hitler's
deputy Rudolph] Hess ... I would arrange a credit for him with a Dutch bank
in Rotterdam, the Bank fussaur Handel und Schiff [i.e. Bank voor Handel en
Scheepvaart (BHS), the Harriman-Bush affiliate]. I arranged the credit ...
he would pay it back in three years.... I chose a Dutch bank because I did
not want to be mixed up with German banks in my position, and because I
thought it was better to do business with a Dutch bank, and I thought I
would have the Nazis a little more in my hands....
"The credit was about 250-300,000 [gold] marks -- about the sum I had given
before. The loan has been repaid in part to the Dutch bank, but I think
some money is still owing on it...." Note #1 Note #4
The overall total of Thyssen's political donations and loans to the Nazis
was well over a million dollars, including funds he raised from others --
in a period of terrible money-shortage in Germany.
"Friedrich Flick" was the major co-owner of the German Steel Trust with
Fritz Thyssen, Thyssen's longtime collaborator and sometime competitor. In
preparation for the war crimes tribunal at Nuremberg, the U.S. government
said that Flick was "one of leading financiers and industrialists who from
1932 contributed large sums to the Nazi Party ... member of 'Circle of
Friends' of Himmler who contributed large sums to the SS." Note #1 Note #5
Flick, like Thyssen, financed the Nazis to maintain their private armies
called Schutzstaffel (S.S. or Black Shirts) and Sturmabteilung (S.A., storm
troops or Brown Shirts).
The Flick-Harriman partnership was directly supervised by Prescott Bush,
President Bush's father, and by George Walker, President Bush's
The Harriman-Walker Union Banking Corp. arrangements for the German Steel
Trust had made them bankers for Flick and his vast operations in Germany by
no later than 1926.
The "Harriman Fifteen Corporation" (George Walker, president, Prescott Bush
and Averell Harriman, sole directors) held a substantial stake in the
Silesian Holding Co. at the time of the merger with Brown Brothers, January
1, 1931. This holding correlated to Averell Harriman's chairmanship of the
"Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation," the American group owning
one-third of a complex of steelmaking, coal-mining and zinc-mining
activities in Germany and Poland, in which Friedrich Flick owned two-thirds.
Note #1 Note #6
The Nuremberg prosecutor characterized Flick as follows:
"Proprietor and head of a large group of industrial enterprises (coal and
iron mines, steel producing and fabricating plants) ...
'Wehrwirtschaftsfuehrer,' 1938 [title awarded to prominent industrialists
for merit in armaments drive -- 'Military Economy Leader']...." Note #1
For this buildup of the Hitler war machine with coal, steel, and arms
production, using slave laborers, the Nazi Flick was condemned to seven
years in prison at the Nuremberg trials; he served three years. With
friends in New York and London, however, Flick lived into the 1970s and
died a billionaire.
On March 19, 1934, Prescott Bush -- then director of the German Steel
Trust's Union Banking Corporation -- initiated an alert to the absent
Averell Harriman about a problem which had developed in the Flick
partnership. Note #1 Note #8 Bush sent Harriman a clipping from the "New
York Times" of that day, which reported that the Polish government was
fighting back against American and German stockholders who controlled
"Poland's largest industrial unit, the Upper Silesian Coal and Steel
The "Times" article continued: "The company has long been accused of
mismanagement, excessive borrowing, fictitious bookkeeping and gambling in
securities. Warrants were issued in December for several directors accused
of tax evasions. They were German citizens and they fled. They were
replaced by Poles. Herr Flick, regarding this as an attempt to make the
company's board entirely Polish, retaliated by restricting credits until
the new Polish directors were unable to pay the workmen regularly."
The "Times" noted that the company's mines and mills "employ 25,000 men and
account for 45 percent of Poland's total steel output and 12 percent of her
coal production. Two-thirds of the company's stock is owned by Friedrich
Flick, a leading German steel industrialist, and the remainder is owned by
interests in the United States."
In view of the fact that a great deal of Polish output was being exported
to Hitler's Germany under depression conditions, the Polish government
thought that Bush, Harriman, and their Nazi partners should at least pay
full taxes on their Polish holdings. The U.S. and Nazi owners responded
with a lockout. The letter to Harriman in Washington reported a cable from
their European representative: "Have undertaken new steps London Berlin ...
please establish friendly relations with Polish Ambassador [in
A 1935 Harriman Fifteen Corporation memo from George Walker announced an
agreement had been made "in Berlin" to sell an 8,000 block of their shares
in Consolidated Silesian Steel. Note #1 Note #9 But the dispute with Poland
did not deter the Bush family from continuing its partnership with Flick.
Nazi tanks and bombs "settled" this dispute in September, 1939 with the
invasion of Poland, beginning World War II. The Nazi army had been equipped
by Flick, Harriman, Walker, and Bush, with materials essentially stolen
There were probably few people at the time who could appreciate the irony,
that when the Soviets also attacked and invaded Poland from the East, their
vehicles were fueled by oil pumped from Baku wells revived by the
Three years later, nearly a year after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor,
the U.S. government ordered the seizure of the Nazis' share in the
Silesian-American Corporation under the Trading with the Enemy Act. Enemy
nationals were said to own 49 percent of the common stock and 41.67 percent
of the preferred stock of the company.
The order characterized the company as a "business enterprise within the
United States, owned by [a front company in] Zurich, Switzerland, and held
for the benefit of Bergwerksgesellschaft George von Giesche's Erben, a
German corporation...." Note #2 Note #0
Bert Walker was still the senior director of the company, which he had
founded back in 1926 simultaneously with the creation of the German Steel
Trust. Ray Morris, Prescott's partner from Union Banking Corp. andBrown
Brothers Harriman, was also a dir ector.
The investigative report prior to the government crackdown explained the
"NATURE OF BUSINESS: The subject corporation is an American holding company
for German and Polish subsidiaries, which own large and valuable coal and
zinc mines in Silesia, Poland and Germany. Since September 1939, these
properties have been in the possession of and have been operated by the
German government and have undoubtedly been of considerable assistance to
that country in its war effort." Note #2 Note #1
The report noted that the American stockholders hoped to regain control of
the European properties after the war.
4. Control of Nazi Commerce
Bert Walker had arranged the credits Harriman needed to take control of the
Hamburg-Amerika Line back in 1920. Walker had organized the "American Ship
and Commerce Corp." as a unit of the W.A. Harriman & Co., with contractual
power over Hamburg-Amerika's affairs.
As the Hitler project went into high gear, Harriman-Bush shares in American
Ship and Commerce Corp. were held by the Harriman Fifteen Corp., run by
Prescott Bush and Bert Walker. Note #2 Note #2
It was a convenient stroll for the well-tanned, athletic, handsome Prescott
Bush. From the Brown Brothers Harriman skyscraper at 59 Wall Street --
where he was senior managing partner, confidential investments manager and
advisor to Averell and his brother "Bunny" -- he walked across to the
Harriman Fifteen Corporation at One Wall Street, otherwise known as G.H.
Walker & Co. -- and around the corner to his subsidiary offices at 39
Broadway, former home of the old W.A. Harriman & Co., and still the offices
for American Ship and Commerce, and of the Union Banking Corporation.
In many ways, Bush's Hamburg-Amerika Line was the pivot for the entire
Averell Harriman and Bert Walker had gained control over the steamship
company in 1920 in negotiations with its post-World War I chief executive,
"Wilhelm Cuno", and with the line's bankers, M.M. Warburg. Cuno was
thereafter completely dependent on the Anglo-Americans, and became a member
of the Anglo-German Friendship Society. In the 1930-32 drive for a Hitler
dictatorship, Wilhelm Cuno contributed important sums to the Nazi Party.
Note #2 Note #3
"Albert Voegler" was chief executive of the Thyssen-Flick German Steel
Trust for which Bush's Union Banking Corp. was the New York office. He was
a director of the Bush-affiliate BHS Bank in Rotterdam, and a director of
the Harriman-Bush Hamburg-Amerika Line. Voegler joined Thyssen and Flick in
their heavy 1930-33 Nazi contributions, and helped organize the final Nazi
leap into national power. Note #2 Note #4
The "Schroeder" family of bankers was a linchpin for the Nazi activities of
Harriman and Prescott Bush, closely tied to their lawyers Allen and John
Baron Kurt von Schroeder was co-director of the massive Thyssen-Huette
foundry along with Johann Groeninger, Prescott Bush's New York bank
partner. Kurt von Schroeder was treasurer of the support organization for
the Nazi Party's private armies, to which Friedrich Flick contributed. Kurt
von Schroeder and Montagu Norman's proteaageaa Hjalmar Schacht together
made the final arrangments for Hitler to enter the government. Note #2 Note
Baron Rudolph von Schroeder was vice president and director of the
Hamburg-Amerika Line. Long an intimate contact of Averell Harriman's in
Germany, Baron Rudolph sent his grandson Baron Johann Rudolph for a tour of
Prescott Bush's Brown Brothers Harriman offices in New York City in
December 1932 -- on the eve of their Hitler-triumph. Note #2 Note #6
Certain actions taken directly by the Harriman-Bush shipping line in 1932
must be ranked among the gravest acts of treason in this century.
The U.S. Embassy in Berlin reported back to Washington that the "costly
election campaigns" and "the cost of maintaining a private army of 300,000
to 400,000 men" had raised questions as to the Nazis' financial backers.
The constitutional government of the German republic moved to defend
national freedom by ordering the Nazi Party private armies disbanded. The
U.S. Embassy reported that the "Hamburg-Amerika Line was purchasing and
distributing propaganda attacks against the German government, for
attempting this last-minute crackdown on Hitler's forces." Note #2 Note #7
Thousands of German opponents of Hitlerism were shot or intimidated by
privately armed Nazi Brown Shirts. In this connection, we note that the
original "Merchant of Death," Samuel Pryor, was a founding director of both
the Union Banking Corp. and the American Ship and Commerce Corp. Since Mr.
Pryor was executive committee chairman of Remington Arms and a central
figure in the world's private arms traffic, his use to the Hitler project
was enhanced as the Bush family's partner in Nazi Party banking and
The U.S. Senate arms-traffic investigators probed Remington after it was
joined in a cartel agreement on explosives to the Nazi firm I.G. Farben.
Looking at the period leading up to Hitler's seizure of power, the senators
found that "German political associations, like the Nazi and others, are
nearly all armed with American ... guns.... Arms of all kinds coming from
America are transshipped in the Scheldt to river barges before the vessels
arrive in Antwerp. They then can be carried through Holland without police
inspection or interference. The Hitlerists and Communists are presumed to
get arms in this manner. The principal arms coming from America are
Thompson submachine guns and revolvers. The number is great." Note #2 Note
The beginning of the Hitler regime brought some bizarre changes to the
Hamburg-Amerika Line -- and more betrayals.
Prescott Bush's American Ship and Commerce Corp. notified Max Warburg of
Hamburg, Germany, on March 7, 1933, that Warburg was to be the
corporation's official, designated representative on the board of
Hamburg-Amerika. Note #2 Note #9
Max Warburg replied on March 27, 1933, assuring his American sponsors that
the Hitler government was good for Germany: "For the last few years
business was considerably better than we had anticipated, but a reaction is
making itself felt for some months. We are actually suffering also under
the very active propaganda against Germany, caused by some unpleasant
circumstances. These occurrences were the natural consequence of the very
excited election campaign, but were extraordinarily exaggerated in the
foreign press. The Government is firmly resolved to maintain public peace
and order in Germany, and I feel perfectly convinced in this respect that
there is no cause for any alarm whatsoever." Note #3 Note #0
This seal of approval for Hitler, coming from a famous Jew, was just what
Harriman and Bush required, for they anticipated rather serious "alarm"
inside the U.S.A. against their Nazi operations.
On March 29, 1933, two days after Max's letter to Harriman, Max's son Erich
sent a cable to his cousin Frederick M. Warburg, a director of the Harriman
railroad system. He asked Frederick to "use all your influence" to stop all
anti-Nazi activity in America, including "atrocity news and unfriendly
propaganda in foreign press, mass meetings, etc." Frederick cabled back to
Erich: "No responsible groups here [are] urging [a] boycott [of] German
goods[,] merely excited individuals." Two days after that, On March 31,
1933, the "American-Jewish Committee," controlled by the Warburgs, and the
"B'nai B'rith," heavily influenced by the Sulzbergers' ("New York Times"),
issued a formal, official joint statement of the two organizations,
counselling "that no American boycott against Germany be encouraged, [and
advising] ... that no further mass meetings be held or similar forms of
agitation be employed." Note #3 Note #1
The American Jewish Committee and the B'nai B'rith (mother of the
"Anti-Defamation League") continued with this hardline, no-attack-on-Hitler
stance all through the 1930s, blunting the fight mounted by many Jews and
Thus the decisive interchange reproduced above, taking place entirely
within the orbit of the Harriman/Bush firm, may explain something of the
relation ship of George Bush to American Jewish and Zionist leaders. Some
of them, in close cooperation with his family, played an ugly part in the
drama of Naziism. Is this why "professional Nazi-hunters" have never
discovered how the Bush family made its money?
-* * *-
The executive board of the "Hamburg Amerika Line" "(Hapag)" met jointly
with the North German Lloyd company board in Hamburg on September 5, 1933.
Under official Nazi supervision, the two firms were merged. Prescott Bush's
American Ship and Commerce Corp. installed Christian J. Beck, a longtime
Harriman executive, as manager of freight and operations in North America
for the new joint Nazi shipping lines "(Hapag-Lloyd)") on November 4, 1933.
According to testimony of officials of the companies before Congress in
1934, a supervisor from the "Nazi Labor Front" rode with every ship of the
Harriman-Bush line; employees of the New York offices were directly
organized into the Nazi Labor Front organization; Hamburg-Amerika provided
free passage to individuals going abroad for Nazi propaganda purposes; and
the line subsidized pro-Nazi newspapers in the U.S.A., as it had done in
Germany against the constitutional German government. Note #3 Note #2
In mid-1936, Prescott Bush's American Ship and Commerce Corp. cabled M.M.
Warburg, asking Warburg to represent the company's heavy share interest at
the forthcoming Hamburg-Amerika stockholders meeting. The Warburg office
replied with the information that "we represented you" at the stockholders
meeting and "exercised on your behalf your voting power for Rm [gold marks]
3,509,600 Hapag stock deposited with us."
The Warburgs transmitted a letter received from Emil Helfferich, German
chief executive of both Hapag-Lloyd and of the Standard Oil subsidiary in
Nazi Germany: "It is the intention to continue the relations with Mr.
Harriman on the same basis as heretofore...." In a colorful gesture,
Hapag's Nazi chairman Helfferich sent the line's president across the
Atlantic on a Zeppelin to confer with their New York string-pullers.
After the meeting with the Zeppelin passenger, the Harriman-Bush office
replied: "I am glad to learn that Mr. Hellferich [sic] has stated that
relations between the Hamburg American Line and ourselves will be continued
on the same basis as heretofore." Note #3 Note #3
Two months before moving against Bush's Union Banking Corp., the U.S.
government ordered the seizure of all property of the Hamburg-Amerika Line
and North German Lloyd, under the Trading with the Enemy Act. The
investigators noted in the pre-seizure report that Christian J. Beck was
still acting as an attorney representing the Nazi firm. Note #3 Note #4
In May 1933, just after the Hitler regime was consolidated, an agreement
was reached in Berlin for the coordination of all Nazi commerce with the
U.S.A. The "Harriman International Co.," led by Averell Harriman's first
cousin Oliver, was to head a syndicate of 150 firms and individuals, to
conduct "all exports from Hitler's Germany to the United States". Note #3
This pact had been negotiated in Berlin between Hitler's economics
minister, Hjalmar Schacht, and John Foster Dulles, international attorney
for dozens of Nazi enterprises, with the counsel of Max Warburg and Kurt
John Foster Dulles would later be U.S. Secretary of State, and the great
power in the Republican Party of the 1950s. Foster's friendship and that of
his brother Allen (head of the Central Intelligence Agency), greatly aided
Prescott Bush to become the Republican U.S. senator from Connecticut. And
it was to be of inestimable value to George Bush, in his ascent to the
heights of "covert action government," that both of these Dulles brothers
were the lawyers for the Bush family's far-flung enterprise.
Throughout the 1930s, John Foster Dulles arranged debt restructuring for
German firms under a series of decrees issued by Adolf Hitler. In these
deals, Dulles struck a balance between the interest owed to selected,
larger investors, and the needs of the growing Nazi warmaking apparatus for
producing tanks, poison gas, etc.
Dulles wrote to Prescott Bush in 1937 concerning one such arrangement. The
German-Atlantic Cable Company, owning Nazi Germany's only telegraph channel
to the United States, had made debt and management agreements with the
Walker-Harriman bank during the 1920s. A new decree would now void those
agreements, which had originally been reached with non-Nazi corporate
officials. Dulles asked Bush, who managed these affairs for Averell
Harriman, to get Averell's signature on a letter to Nazi officials,
agreeing to the changes. Dulles wrote: "Sept. 22, 1937 "Mr. Prescott S.
Bush "59 Wall Street, New York, N.Y.
"I have looked over the letter of the German-American [sic] Cable Company
to Averell Harriman.... It would appear that the only rights in the matter
are those which inure in the bankers and that no legal embarrassment would
result, so far as the bondholders are concerned, by your acquiescence in
the modification of the bankers' agreement.
"John Foster Dulles"
Dulles enclosed a proposed draft reply, Bush got Harriman's signature, and
the changes went through. Note #3 Note #6
In conjunction with these arrangements, the German Atlantic Cable Company
attempted to stop payment on its debts to smaller American bondholders. The
money was to be used instead for arming the Nazi state, under a decree of
the Hitler government.
Despite the busy efforts of Bush and Dulles, a New York court decided that
this particular Hitler "law" was invalid in the United States; small
bondholders, not parties to deals between the bankers and the Nazis, were
entitled to get paid. Note #3 Note #7
In this and a few other of the attempted swindles, the intended victims
came out with their money. But the Nazi financial and political
reorganization went ahead to its tragic climax.
For his part in the Hitler revolution, Prescott Bush was paid a fortune.
This is the legacy he left to his son, President George Bush.
Notes - Chapter 2
1. Office of Alien Property Custodian, Vesting Order Number 248. Signed by
Leo T. Crowley, Alien Property Custodian, executed October 20, 1942; F.R.
Doc. 42-11568; Filed, November 6, 1942. 7 Fed. Reg. 9097 (November 7,
The "New York City Directory of Directors", 1930s-40s, list Prescott Bush
as a director of Union Banking Corp. from 1934 through 1943.
2. Alien Property Custodian Vesting Order No. 259: Seamless Steel Equipment
Corporation; Vesting Order Number 261: Holland-American Trading Corp.
3. Alien Property Custodian Vesting Order No. 370: Silesian-American Corp.
4. "New York Times," December 16, 1944, ran a five-paragraph page 25
article on actions of the New York State Banking Department. Only the last
sentence refers to the Nazi bank, as follows: "The Union Banking
Corporation, 39 Broadway, New York, has received authority to change its
principal place of business to 120 Broadway."
The "Times" omitted the fact that the Union Banking Corporation had been
seized by the government for trading with the enemy, and the fact that 120
Broadway was the address of the government's Alien Property Custodian.
5. Fritz Thyssen, "I Paid Hitler", 1941, reprinted in (Port Washington,
N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1972), p. 133. Thyssen says his contributions began
with 100,000 marks given in October 1923, for Hitler's attempted "putsch"
against the constitutional government.
6. Confidential memorandum from U.S. Embassy, Berlin, to the U.S. Secretary
of State, April 20, 1932, on microfilm in "Confidential Reports of U.S.
State Dept., 1930s, Germany," at major U.S. libraries.
7. October 5, 1942, Memorandum to the Executive Committee of the Office of
Alien Property Custodian, stamped CONFIDENTIAL, from the Division of
Investigation and Research, Homer Jones, Chief. Now declassified in United
States National Archives, Suitland, Maryland annex. Note Record Group 131,
Alien Property Custodian, investigative reports, in file box relating to
Vesting Order Number 248.
8. "Elimination of German Resources for War": Hearings Before a
Subcommittee of the Com mittee on Military Affairs, United States Senate,
Seventy-Ninth Congress; Part 5, Testimony of [the United States] Treasury
Department, July 2, 1945. Page 507: Table of Vereinigte Stahlwerke output,
figures are percent of German total as of 1938; Thyssen organization
including Union Banking Corporation pp. 727-731.
9. Robert Sobel, "The Life and Times of Dillon Read" (New York:
Dutton-Penguin, 1991), pp. 92-111. The Dillon Read firm cooperated in the
development of Sobel's book.
10. George Walker to Averell Harriman, August 11, 1927, in W. Averell
Harriman papers, Library of Congress (hereafter "WAH papers").
11. "Iaccarino" to G. H. Walker, RCA Radiogram Sept. 12, 1927.
12. Andrew Boyle, "Montagu Norman" (London: Cassell, 1967).
Sir Henry Clay, "Lord Norman" (London, MacMillan & Co., 1957), pp. 18, 57,
John A. Kouwenhouven, "Partners in Banking ... Brown Brothers Harriman"
(Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1969).
13. Coordination of much of the Hitler project took place at a single New
York address. The Union Banking Corporation had been set up by George
Walker at 39 Broadway. Management of the Hamburg-Amerika Line, carried out
through Harriman's American Ship and Commerce Corp., was also set up by
George Walker at 39 Broadway.
14. Interrogation of Fritz Thyssen, EF/Me/1 of Sept. 4, 1945 in U.S.
Control Council records, photostat on page 167 in Anthony Sutton, "An
Introduction to The Order" (Billings, Mt.: Liberty House Press, 1986).
15. "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Supplement B", by the Office of United
States Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality, U. S.
Government Printing Office, (Washington, D.C., 1948), pp. 1597, 1686.
16. "Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation - [minutes of the] Meeting of
Board of Directors," October 31, 1930 (WAH papers), shows Averell Harriman
as Chairman of the Board.
Prescott Bush to W.A. Harriman, Memorandum December 19, 1930 on their
Harriman Fifteen Corp.
Annual Report of United Konigs and Laura Steel and Iron Works for the year
1930 (WAH papers) lists "Dr. Friedrich Flick ... Berlin" and "William
Averell Harriman ... New York" on the Board of Directors.
"Harriman Fifteen Coporation Securities Position February 28, 1931," WAH
papers. This report shows Harriman Fifteen Corporation holding 32,576
shares in Silesian Holding Co. V.T.C. worth (in scarce depression dollars)
$1,628,800, just over half the value of the Harriman Fifteen Corporation's
The "New York City Directory of Directors" volumes for the 1930s (available
at the Library of Congress) show Prescott Sheldon Bush and W. Averell
Harriman as the directors of Harriman Fifteen Corp.
"Appointments," (three typed pages) marked "Noted May 18 1931 W.A.H.,"
(among the papers from Prescott Bush's New York Office of Brown Brothers
Harriman, WAH papers), lists a meeting between Averell Harriman and
Friedrich Flick in Berlin at 4:00 P.M., Wednesday April 22, 1931. This was
followed immediately by a meeting with Wilhelm Cuno, chief executive of the
The "Report To the Stockholders of the Harriman Fifteen Corporation,"
October 19, 1933 (WAH papers) names G.H. Walker as president of the
corporation. It shows the Harriman Fifteen Corp.'s address as 1 Wall Street
-- the location of G.H. Walker and Co.
17. "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Supplement B", "op. cit.," p. 1686.
18. Jim Flaherty (a BBH manager, Prescott Bush's employee), March 19, 1934
to W.A. Harriman.
"In Roland's absence Pres[cott] thought it adviseable for me to let you
know that we received the following cable from [our European
representative] Rossi dated March 17th [relating to conflict with the
19. Harriman Fifteen Corporation notice to stockholders January 7, 1935,
under the name of George Walker, President.
20. Order No. 370: Silesian-American Corp. Executed November 17, 1942.
Signed by Leo T. Crowley, Alien Prop. Custodian. F.R. Doc. 42-14183; Filed,
December 31, 1942; 8 Fed. Reg. 33 (Jan. 1, 1943).
The order confiscated the Nazis' holdings of 98,000 shares of common and 50,000 shares of preferred stock in
The Nazi parent company in Breslau, Germany wrote to Averell Harriman at 59
Wall St. on Aug. 5, 1940, with "an invitation to take part in the regular
meeting of the members of the Bergwerksgesellsc[h]aft Georg von Giesche's
Erben...." WAH papers.
21. Sept. 25, 1942, Memorandum To the Executive Committee of the Office of
Alien Property Custodian, stamped CONFIDENTIAL, from the Division of
Investigation and Research, Homer Jones, Chief. Now declassified in United
States National Archives, Suitland, Maryland annex. See Record Group 131,
Alien Property Custodian, investigative reports, in file box relating to
Vesting Order Number 370.
22. George Walker was a director of American Ship and Commerce from its
organization through 1928. Consult "New York City Directory of Directors".
"Harriman Fifteen Corporation Securities Position February 28, 1931," "op.
cit." The report lists 46,861 shares in the American Ship & Commerce Corp.
See "Message from Mr. Bullfin," August 30, 1934 (Harriman Fifteen section,
WAH papers) for the joint supervision of Bush and Walker, respectively
director and president of the corporation.
23. Cuno was later exposed by Walter Funk, Third Reich Press Chief and
Under Secretary of Propaganda, in Funk's postwar jail cell at Nuremberg;
but Cuno had died just as Hitler was taking power. William L. Shirer, L.,
"The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" (New York: Simon and Schuster,
1960), p. 144. "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Supplement B", "op. cit.,"
24. See "Elimination of German Resources for War," "op. cit.," pages
881-882 on Voegler.
See Annual Report of the
(Hamburg-Amerikanische-Packetfahrt-Aktien-Gesellschaft (Hapag or
Hamburg-Amerika Line), March 1931, for the board of directors. A copy is in
the New York Public Library Annex at 11th Avenue, Manhattan.
25. "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression -- Supplement B," "op. cit.," pp. 1178,
1453-1454, 1597, 1599.
See "Elimination of German Resources for War," "op. cit.," pp. 870-72 on
Schroeder; p. 730 on Groeninger.
26. Annual Report of Hamburg-Amerika, "op. cit."
Baron Rudolph Schroeder, Sr. to Averell Harriman, November 14, 1932.
K[night] W[ooley] handwritten note and draft reply letter, December 9,
In his letter, Baron Rudolph refers to the family's American affiliate, J.
Henry Schroder [name anglicized], of which Allen Dulles was a director, and
his brother John Foster Dulles was the principal attorney.
Baron Bruno Schroder of the British branch was adviser to Bank of England
Governor Montagu Norman, and Baron Bruno's partner Frank Cyril Tiarks was
Norman's co-director of the Bank of England throughout Norman's career.
Kurt von Schroeder was Hjalmar Schacht's delegate to the Bank for
International Settlements in Geneva, where many of the financial
arrangements for the Nazi regime were made by Montagu Norman, Schacht and
the Schroeders for several years of the Hitler regime right up to the
outbreak of World War II.
27. Confidential memorandum from U.S. Embassy, Berlin, "op. cit."
28. U.S. Senate "Nye Committee" hearings, Sept. 14, 1934, pp. 1197-1198,
extracts from letters of Col. William N. Taylor, dated June 27, 1932 and
January 9, 1933.
29. American Ship and Commerce Corporation to Dr. Max Warburg, March 7, 1933.
Max Warburg had brokered the sale of Hamburg-Amerika to Harriman and Walker
in 1920. Max's brothers controlled the Kuhn Loeb investment banking house
in New York, the firm which had staked old E.H. Harriman to his 1890s
buyout of the giant Union Pacific Railroad.
Max Warburg had long worked with Lord Milner and others of the racialist
British Round Table concerning joint projects in Africa and Eastern Europe.
He was an advisor to Hjalmar Schacht for several decades and was a top
executive of Hitler's Reichsbank. The reader may consult David Farrer, "The
Warburgs: The Story of A Family" (New York: Stein and Day, 1975).
30. Max Warburg, at M.M. Warburg and Co., Hamburg, to Averill [sic]
Harriman, c/o Messrs. Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., 59 Wall Street, New
York, N.Y., March 27, 1933.
31. This correspondence, and the joint statement of the Jewish
organizations, are reproduced in Moshe R. Gottlieb, "American Anti-Nazi
Resistance, 1933-41: An Historical Analysis" (New York: Ktav Publishing
32. "Investigation of Nazi Propaganda Activities and Investigation of
Certain Other Propaganda Activities": Public Hearings before A Subcommittee
of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, United States House of
Representatives, Seventy Third Congress, New York City, July 9-12, 1934 --
Hearings No. 73-NY-7 (Washington, D.C., U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1934).
See testimony of Capt. Frederick C. Mensing, John Schroeder, Paul von
Lilienfeld-Toal, and summaries by Committee members.
See "New York Times," July 16, 1933, p. 12, for organizing of Nazi Labor
Front at North German Lloyd, leading to Hamburg-Amerika after merger.
33. American Ship and Commerce Corporation telegram to Rudolph Brinckmann
at M.M. Warburg, June 12, 1936.
Rudolph Brinckmann to Averell Harriman at 59 Wall St., June 20, 1936, with
enclosed note transmitting Helferrich's letter.
Reply to Dr. Rudolph Brinkmann c/o M.M. Warburg and Co, July 6, 1936, WAH
papers. The file copy of this letter carries no signature, but is
presumably from Averell Harriman.
34. Office of Alien Property Custodian, Vesting Order Number 126. Signed by
Leo T. Crowley, Alien Property Custodian, executed August 28, 1942. F.R.
Doc. 42-8774; Filed September 4, 1942, 10:55 A.M.; 7 F.R. 7061 (Number 176,
Sept. 5, 1942.)
July 18, 1942, Memorandum To the Executive Committee of the Office of Alien
Property Custodian, stamped CONFIDENTIAL, from the Division of
Investigation and Research, Homer Jones, Chief. Now declassified in United
States National Archives, Suitland, Maryland annex. See Record Group 131,
Alien Property Custodian, investigative reports, in file box relating to
Vesting Order Number 126.
35. "New York Times," May 20, 1933. Leading up to this agreement is a
telegram which somehow escaped the shredder. It is addressed to Nazi
official Hjalmar Schacht at the Mayflower Hotel, Washington, dated May 11,
1933: "Much disappointed to have missed seeing you Tueday afternoon.... I
hope to see you either in Washington or New York before you sail.
with my regards W.A. Harriman" (WAH papers).
36. Dulles to Bush, letter and draft reply in WAH papers.
37. "New York Times," Jan. 19, 1938.
Three Bush Family Alliances
"The [government] must put the most modern medical means in the service of
this knowledge.... Those who are physically and mentally unhealthy and
unworthy must not perpetuate their suffering in the body of their
children.... The prevention of the faculty and opportunity to procreate on
the part of the physically degenerate and mentally sick, over a period of
only 600 years, would ... free humanity from an immeasurable misfortune."
"The per capita income gap between the developed and the developing
countries is increasing, in large part the result of higher birth rates in
the poorer countries.... Famine in India, unwanted babies in the United
States, poverty that seemed to form an unbreakable chain for millions of
people -- how should we tackle these problems?.... It is quite clear that
one of the major challenges of the 1970s ... will be to curb the world's
These two quotations are alike in their mock show of concern for human
suffering, and in their cynical remedy for it: Big Brother must prevent the
"unworthy" or "unwanted" people from living.
Let us now further inquire into the family background of our President, so
as to help illustrate how the second quoted author, "George Bush" Note #1
came to share the outlook of the first, "Adolf Hitler". Note #2
We shall examine here the alliance of the Bush family with three other
families: "Farish, Draper" and "Gray."
The private associations among these families have led to the President's
relationship to his closest, most confidential advisers. These alliances
were forged in the earlier Hitler project and its immediate aftermath.
Understanding them will help us to explain George Bush's obsession with the
supposed overpopulation of the world's non-Anglo-Saxons, and the dangerous
means he has adopted to deal with this "problem."
Bush and Farish
When George Bush was elected vice president in 1980, Texas mystery man
William Stamps Farish III took over management of all of George Bush's
personal wealth in a "blind trust." Known as one of the richest men in
Texas, Will Farish keeps his business affairs under the most intense
secrecy. Only the source of his immense wealth is known, not its
employment. Note #3
Will Farish has long been Bush's closest friend and confidante. He is also
the unique private host to Britain's Queen Elizabeth: Farish owns and
boards the studs which mate with the Queen's mares. That is her public
rationale when she comes to America and stays in Farish's house. It is a
vital link in the mind of our Anglophile President.
President Bush can count on Farish not to betray the violent secrets
surrounding the Bush family money. For Farish's own family fortune was made
in the same Hitler project, in a nightmarish partnership with George Bush's
On March 25, 1942, U.S. Assistant Attorney General Thurman Arnold announced
that William Stamps Farish (grandfather of the President's money manager)
had pleaded "no contest" to charges of criminal conspiracy with the Nazis.
Farish was the principal manager of a worldwide cartel between Standard Oil
Co. of New Jersey and the I.G. Farben concern. The merged enterprise had
opened the Auschwitz slave labor camp on June 14, 1940, to produce
artificial rubber and gasoline from coal. The Hitler government supplied
political opponents and Jews as the slaves, who were worked to near death
and then murdered.
Arnold disclosed that Standard Oil of New Jersey (later known as Exxon), of
which Farish was president and chief executive, had agreed to stop hiding
from the United States patents for artificial rubber which the company had
provided to the Nazis. Note #4
A Senate investigating committee under Senator (later U.S. President) Harry
Truman of Missouri had called Arnold to testify at hearings on
corporations' collaboration with the Nazis. The Senators expressed outrage
at the cynical way Farish was continuing an alliance with the Hitler regime
that had begun back in 1933, when Farish became chief of Jersey Standard.
Didn't he know there was a war on?
The Justice Department laid before the committee a letter, written to
Standard president Farish by his vice president, shortly after the
beginning of World War II (September 1, 1939) in Europe. The letter
concerned a renewal of their earlier agreements with the Nazis:
Report on European Trip Oct. 12, 1939 Mr. W.S. Farish 30 Rockefeller Plaza
Dear Mr. Farish:
... I stayed in France until Sept. 17th.... In England I met by appointment
the Royal Dutch [Shell Oil Co.] gentlemen from Holland, and ... a general
agreement was reached on the necessary changes in our relations with the
I.G. [Farben], in view of the state of war.... [T]he Royal Dutch Shell
group is essentially British.... I also had several meetings with ... the
[British] Air Ministry....
I required help to obtain the necessary permission to go to Holland....
After discussions with the [American] Ambassador [Joseph Kennedy] .. the
situation was cleared completely.... The gentlemen in the Air Ministry ...
very kindly offered to assist me [later] in reentering England....
Pursuant to these arrangements, I was able to keep my appointments in
Holland [having flown there on a British Royal Air Force bomber], where I
had three days of discussion with the representatives of I.G. They
delivered to me assignments of some 2,000 foreign patents and "we did our
best to work out complete plans for a modus vivendi which could operate
through the term of the war, whether or not the U.S. came in...." [emphasis
Very truly yours, F[rank] A. Howard Note #5
Here are some cold realities behind the tragedy of World War II, which help
explain the Bush-Farish family alliance -- andtheir peculiar closeness to
the Queen of England:
Note #b|Shell Oil is principally owned by the British Royal family.
Shell's chairman, Sir Henri Deterding, helped sponsor Hitler's rise to
power, Note #6 by arrangement with the Royal Family's Bank of England
Governor, Montagu Norman. Their ally, Standard Oil, would take part in the
Hitler project right up to the bloody, gruesome end.
Note #b|When grandfather Farish signed the Justice Department's consent
decree in March 1942, the government had already started picking its way
through the tangled web of world-monopoly oil and chemical agreements
between Standard Oil and the Nazis. Many patents and other Nazi-owned
aspects of the partnership had been seized by the U.S. Alien Property
Uncle Sam would not seize Prescott Bush's Union Banking Corporation for
another seven months.
The Bush-Farish axis had begun back in 1929. In that year, the Harriman
bank bought Dresser Industries, supplier of oil-pipeline couplers to
Standard and other companies. Prescott Bush became a director and financial
czar of Dresser, installing his Yale classmate Neil Mallon as chairman.
Note #7 George Bush would later name one of his sons after the Dresser
William S. Farish was the main organizer of the Humble Oil Co. of Texas,
which Farish merged into the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey. Farish
built up the Humble-Standard empire of pipelines and refineries in Texas.
The stock market crashed just after the Bush family got into the oil
business. The world financial crisis led to the merger of the
Walker-Harriman bank with Brown Brothers in 1931. Former Brown partner
Montagu Norman and his protege Hjalmar Schacht, who was to become Hitler's
economics minister, paid frantic visits to New York that year and the next,
preparing the new Hitler regime for Germany.
The Congress on Eugenics
The most important American political event in those preparations for
Hitler was the infamous Third International Congress on Eugenics, held at
New York's American Museum of Natural History August 21-23, 1932,
supervised by the International Federation of Eugenics Societies. Note #9
This meeting took up the stubborn persistence of African-Americans and
other allegedly "inferior" and "socially inadequate" groups in reproducing,
expanding their numbers, and "amalgamating" with others. It was recommended
that these "dangers" to the "better" ethnic groups and to the "well-born,"
could be dealt with by sterilization or "cutting off the bad stock" of the
Italy's fascist government sent an official representative. Averell
Harriman's sister Mary, director of "entertainment" for the Congress, lived
down in Virginia fox-hunting country; her state supplied the speaker on
"racial purity," W.A. Plecker, Virginia commissioner of vital statistics.
Plecker reportedly held the delegates spellbound with his account of the
struggle to stop race-mixing and interracial sex in Virginia.
The Congress proceedings were dedicated to Averell Harriman's mother; she
had paid for the founding of the race-science movement in America back in
1910, building the Eugenics Record Office as a branch of the Galton
National Laboratory in London. She and other Harrimans were usually
escorted to the horse races by old George Herbert Walker -- they shared
with the Bushes and the Farishes a fascination with "breeding
thoroughbreds" among horses and humans. Note #1 Note #0
Averell Harriman personally arranged with the Walker/Bush Hamburg-Amerika
Line to transport Nazi ideologues from Germany to New York for this
meeting. Note #1 Note #1 The most famous among those transported was Dr.
Ernst Rudin, psychiatrist at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Genealogy and
Demography in Berlin, where the Rockefeller family paid for Dr. Rudin to
occupy an entire floor with his eugenics "research." Dr. Rudin had
addressed the International Federation's 1928 Munich meeting, speaking on
"Mental Aberration and Race Hygiene," while others (Germans and Americans)
spoke on race-mixing and sterilization of the unfit. Rudin had led the
German delegation to the 1930 Mental Hygiene Congress in Washington, D.C.
At the Harrimans' 1932 New York Eugenics Congress, Ernst Rudin was
unanimously elected President of the International Federation of Eugenics
Societies. This was recognition of Rudin as founder of the German Society
for Race Hygiene, with his co-founder, Eugenics Federation vice president
As depression-maddened financiers schemed in Berlin and New York, Rudin was
now official leader of the world eugenics movement. Components of his
movement included groups with overlapping leadership, dedicated to:
Note #b|sterilization of mental patients ("mental hygiene societies");
Note #b|execution of the insane, criminals and the terminally ill
("euthanasia societies"); and
Note #b|eugenical race-purification by prevention of births to parents
from inferior blood stocks ("birth control societies").
Before the Auschwitz death camp became a household word, these
British-American-European groups called openly for the elimination of the
"unfit" by means including force and violence. Note #1 Note #2
Ten months later, in June 1933, Hitler's interior minister Wilhelm Frick
spoke to a eugenics meeting in the new Third Reich. Frick called the
Germans a "degenerate" race, denouncing one-fifth of Germany's parents for
producing "feeble-minded" and "defective" children. The following month, on
a commission by Frick, Dr. Ernst Rudin wrote the "Law for the Prevention of
Hereditary Diseases in Posterity," the sterilization law modeled on
previous U.S. statutes in Virginia and other states.
Special courts were soon established for the sterilization of German mental
patients, the blind, the deaf, and alcoholics. A quarter million people in
these categories were sterilized. Rudin, Ploetz, and their colleagues
trained a whole generation of physicians and psychiatrists -- as
sterilizers and as killers.
When the war started, the eugenicists, doctors, and psychiatrists staffed
the new "T4" agency, which planned and supervised the mass killings: first
at "euthanasia centers," where the same categories which had first been
subject to sterilization were now to be murdered, their brains sent in lots
of 200 to experimental psychiatrists; then at slave camps such as
Auschwitz; and finally, for Jews and other race victims, at straight
extermination camps in Poland, such as Treblinka and Belsen. Note #1 Note
In 1933, as what Hitler called his "New Order" appeared, John D.
Rockefeller, Jr. appointed William S. Farish the chairman of Standard Oil
Co. of New Jersey (in 1937 he was made president and chief executive).
Farish moved his offices to Rockefeller Center, New York, where he spent a
good deal of time with Hermann Schmitz, chairman of I.G. Farben; his
company paid a publicity man, Ivy Lee, to write pro-I.G. Farben and
pro-Nazi propaganda and get it into the U.S. press.
Now that he was outside of Texas, Farish found himself in the shipping
business -- like the Bush family. He hired Nazi German crews for Standard
Oil tankers. And he hired "Emil Helfferich," chairman of the
Walker/Bush/Harriman Hamburg-Amerika Line, as chairman also of the Standard
Oil Company subsidiary in Germany. Karl Lindemann, board member of
Hamburg-Amerika, also became a top Farish-Standard executive in Germany.
Note #1 Note #4
This interlock between their Nazi German operations put Farish together
with Prescott Bush in a small, select group of men operating from abroad
through Hitler's "revolution," and calculating that they would never be
In 1939, Farish's daughter Martha married Averell Harriman's nephew, Edward
Harriman Gerry, and Farish in-laws became Prescott Bush's partners at 59
Broadway. Note #1 Note #5
Both Emil Helfferich and Karl Lindemann were authorized to write checks to
Heinrich Himmler, chief of the Nazi SS, on a special Standard Oil account.
This account was managed by the German-British-American banker, Kurt von
Schroeder. According to U.S. intelligence d ocuments reviewed by author
Anthony Sutton, Helfferich continued his payments to the SS into 1944, when
the SS was supervising the mass murder at the Standard-I.G. Farben
Auschwitz and other death camps. Helfferich told Allied interrogators after
the war that these were not his personal contributions -- they were
corporate Standard Oil funds. Note #1 Note #6
After pleading "no contest" to charges of criminal conspiracy with the
Nazis, William Stamps Farish was fined $5,000. (Similar fines were levied
against Standard Oil -- $5,000 each for the parent company and for several
subsidiaries.) This of course did not interfere with the millions of
dollars that Farish had acquired in conjunction with Hitler's New Order, as
a large stockholder, chairman, and president of Standard Oil. All the
government sought was the use of patents which his company had given to the
Nazis -- the Auschwitz patents -- but had withheld from the U.S. military
But a war was on, and if young men were to be asked to die fighting Hitler
.. something more was needed. Farish was hauled before the Senate committee
investigating the national defense program. The committee chairman, Senator
Harry Truman, told newsmen before Farish testified: "I think this
approaches treason." Note #1 Note #7
Farish began breaking apart at these hearings. He shouted his "indignation"
at the senators, and claimed he was not "disloyal."
After the March-April hearings ended, more dirt came gushing out of the
Justice Department and the Congress on Farish and Standard Oil. Farish had
deceived the U.S. Navy to prevent the Navy from acquiring certain patents,
while supplying them to the Nazi war machine; meanwhile, he was supplying
gasoline and tetraethyl lead to Germany's submarines and air force.
Communications between Standard and I.G. Farben from the outbreak of World
War II were released to the Senate, showing that Farish's organization had
arranged to deceive the U.S. government into passing over Nazi-owned
assets: They would nominally buy I.G.'s share in certain patents because
"in the event of war between ourselves and Germany ... it would certainly
be very undesireable to have this 20 percent Standard-I.G. pass to an alien
property custodian of the U.S. who might sell it to an unfriendly
interest." Note #1 Note #8
John D. Rockefeller, Jr. (father of David, Nelson, and John D. Rockefeller
III), the controlling owner of Standard Oil, told the Roosevelt
administration that he knew nothing of the day-to-day affairs of his
company, that all these matters were handled by Farish and other
executives. Note #1 Note #9
In August, Farish was brought back for more testimony. He was now
frequently accused of lying. Farish was crushed under the intense, public
grilling; he became morose, ashen. While Prescott Bush escaped publicity
when the government seized his Nazi banking organization in October, Farish
had been nailed. He collapsed and died of a heart attack on November 29,
The Farish family was devastated by the exposure. Son William Stamps
Farish, Jr., a lieutenant in the Army Air Force, was humiliated by the
public knowledge that his father was fueling the enemy's aircraft; he died
in a training accident in Texas six months later. Note #2 Note #0
With this double death, the fortune comprising much of Standard Oil's
profits from Texas and Nazi Germany was now to be settled upon the little
four-year-old grandson, William ("Will") Stamps Farish III. Will Farish
grew up a recluse, the most secretive multimillionaire in Texas, with
investments of "that money" in a multitude of foreign countries, and a host
of exotic contacts overlapping the intelligence and financial worlds --
particularly in Britain.
The Bush-Farish axis started George Bush's career. After his 1948
graduation from Yale (and the Skull and Bones secret society), George Bush
flew down to Texas on a corporate jet and was employed by his father's
Dresser Industries. In a couple of years he got help from his uncle, George
Walker, Jr., and Farish's British banker friends, to set him up in the oil
property speculation business. Soon thereafter, George Bush founded the
Zapata Oil Company, which put oil drilling rigs into certain locations of
great strategic interest to the Anglo-American intelligence community.
Twenty-five-year-old Will Farish was personal aide to Zapata chairman
George Bush in Bush's unsuccessful 1964 campaign for Senate. Farish used
"that Auschwitz money" to back George Bush financially, investing in
Zapata. When Bush was elected to Congress in 1966, Farish joined the Zapata
board. Note #2 Note #1
When George Bush became U.S. vice president in 1980, the Farish and Bush
family fortunes were again completely, secretly commingled. As we shall
see, the old projects were now being revived on a breathtaking scale.
Bush and Draper
Twenty years before he was U.S. President, George Bush brought two
"race-science" professors in front of the Republican Task Force on Earth
Resources and Population. As chairman of the Task Force, then-Congressman
Bush invited Professors William Shockley and Arthur Jensen to explain to
the committee how allegedly runaway birth-rates for African-Americans were
"down-breeding" the American population.
Afterwards, Bush personally summed up for the Congress the testimony his
black-inferiority advocates had given to the Task Force. Note #2 Note #2
George Bush held his hearings on the threat posed by black babies on August
5, 1969, while much of the world was in a better frame of mind --
celebrating mankind's progress from the first moon landing 16 days earlier.
Bush's obsessive thinking on this subject was guided by his family's
friend, Gen. William H. Draper, Jr., the founder and chairman of the
Population Crisis Committee, and vice chairman of the Planned Parenthood
Federation. Draper had long been steering U.S. public discussion about the
so-called "population bomb" in the non-white areas of the world.
If Congressman Bush had explained to his colleagues "how his family had
come to know General Draper," they would perhaps have felt some alarm, or
even panic, and paid more healthy attention to Bush's presentation.
Unfortunately, the Draper-Bush population doctrine is now official U.S.
William H. Draper, Jr. had joined the Bush team in 1927, when he was hired
by Dillon Read & Co., New York investment bankers. Draper was put into a
new job slot at the firm: handling the Thyssen account.
We recall that in 1924, Fritz Thyssen set up his Union Banking Corporation
in George Herbert Walker's bank at 39 Broadway, Manhattan. Dillon Read &
Co.'s boss, Clarence Dillon, had begun working with Fritz Thyssen some time
after Averell Harriman first met with Thyssen -- at about the time Thyssen
began financing Adolf Hitler's political career.
In January 1926, Dillon Read created the "German Credit and Investment
Corporation" in Newark, New Jersey and Berlin, Germany, as Thyssen's
short-term banker. That same year, Dillon Read created the "Vereinigte
Stahlwerke" (German Steel Trust), incorporating the Thyssen family
interests under the direction of New York and London finance. Note #2 Note
William H. Draper, Jr. was made director, vice president, and assistant
treasurer of the German Credit and Investment Corp. His business was
short-term loans and financial management tricks for Thyssen and the German
Steel Trust. Draper's clients sponsored Hitler's terroristic takeover; his
clients led the buildup of the Nazi war industry; his clients made war
against the United States. The Nazis were Draper's direct partners in
Berlin and New Jersey: Alexander Kreuter, residing in Berlin, was
president; Frederic Brandi, whose father was a top coal executive in the
German Steel Trust, moved to the United States in 1926 and served as
Draper's co-director in Newark.
Draper's role was crucial for Dillon Read & Co., for whom Draper was a
partner and eventually vice president. The German Credit and Investment
Corp. (GCI) was a "front" for Dillon Read: It had the same New Jersey
address as U.S. & International Securities Corp. (USIS), and the same man
served as treasu rer of both firms. Note #2 Note #4
Clarence Dillon and his son C. Douglas Dillon were directors of USIS, which
was spotlighted when Clarence Dillon was hauled before the Senate Banking
Committee's famous "Pecora" hearings in 1933. USIS was shown to be one of
the great speculative pyramid schemes which had swindled stockholders of
hundreds of millions of dollars. These investment policies had rotted the
U.S. economy to the core, and led to the Great Depression of the 1930s.
But William H. Draper, Jr.'s GCI "front" was not "apparently" affiliated
with the USIS "front" or with Dillon, and the GCI escaped the congressmen's
limited scrutiny. This oversight was to prove most unfortunate,
particularly to the 50 million people who subsequently died in World War
Dillon Read hired public relations man Ivy Lee to prepare their executives
for their testimony and to confuse and further baffle the congressmen. Note
#2 Note #5 Lee apparently took enough time out from his duties as
image-maker for William S. Farish and the Nazi I.G. Farben Co.; he managed
the congressional thinking so that the congressmen did not disturb the
Draper operation in Germany -- and did not meddle with Thyssen, or
interfere with Hitler's U.S. moneymen.
Thus, in 1932, Willam H. Draper, Jr. was free to finance the International
Eugenics Congress as a "Supporting Member." Note #2 Note #6 Was he using
his own income as a Thyssen trust banker? Or did the funds come from Dillon
Read corporate accounts, perhaps to be written off income tax as "expenses
for German project: race purification"? Draper helped select Ernst Rudin as
chief of the world eugenics movement, who used his office to promote what
he called Adolf Hitler's "holy, national and international racial hygienic
mission." Note #2 Note #7
W.S. Farish was publicly exposed in 1942, humiliated and destroyed. Just
before Farish died, Prescott Bush's Nazi banking office was quietly seized
and shut down. But Prescott's close friend and partner in the
Thyssen-Hitler business, William H. Draper, Jr., "neither died nor moved
out of German affairs." Draper listed himself as a director of the German
Credit and Investment Corp. through 1942, and the firm was not liquidated
until November 1943. Note #2 Note #8 But a war was on. Draper, a colonel
from previous military service, went off to the Pacific theater and became
General Draper apparently had a hobby: magic -- illusions, sleight of hand,
etc. -- and he was a member of the Society of American Magicians. This is
not irrelevant to his subsequent career.
The Nazi regime surrendered in May 1945. In July 1945, General Draper was
called to Europe by the American military government authorities in
Germany. Draper was appointed head of the Economics Division of the U.S.
Control Commission. He was assigned to take apart the Nazi corporate
cartels. There is an astonishing but perfectly logical rationale to this --
Draper knew a lot about the subject! General Draper, who had spent about 15
years financing and managing the dirtiest of the Nazi enterprises, was now
authorized to decide "who was exposed, who lost and who kept his business,
and in practical effect, who was prosecuted for war crimes." Note #2 Note
(Draper was not unique within the postwar occupation government. Consider
the case of John J. McCloy, U.S. Military Governor and High Commissioner of
Germany, 1949-1952. Under instructions from his Wall Street law firm,
McCloy had lived for a year in Italy, serving as an adviser to the fascist
government of Benito Mussolini. An intimate collaborator of the
Harriman/Bush bank, McCloy had sat in Adolf Hitler's box at the 1936
Olympic games in Berlin, at the invitation of Nazi chieftains Rudolf Hess
and Hermann Goering.) Note #3 Note #0
William H. Draper, Jr., as a "conservative," was paired with the "liberal"
U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau in a vicious game. Morgenthau
demanded that Germany be utterly destroyed as a nation, that its industry
be dismantled and it be reduced to a purely rural country. As the economic
boss in 1945 and 1946, Draper "protected" Germany from the Morgenthau Plan
... but at a price.
Draper and his colleagues demanded that Germany and the world accept the
"collective guilt of the German people" as "the "explanation for the rise
of Hitler's New Order, and the Nazi war crimes. This, of course, was rather
convenient for General Draper himself, as it was for the Bush family. It is
still convenient decades later, allowing Prescott's son, President Bush, to
lecture Germany on the danger of Hitlerism. Germans are too slow, it seems,
to accept his New World Order.
After several years of government service (often working directly for
Averell Harriman in the North Atlantic Alliance), Draper was appointed in
1958 chairman of a committee which was to advise President Dwight
Eisenhower on the proper course for U.S. military aid to other countries.
At that time, Prescott Bush was a U.S. senator from Connecticut, a
confidential friend and golf partner with National Security Director Gordon
Gray, and an important golf partner with Dwight Eisenhower as well.
Prescott's old lawyer from the Nazi days, John Foster Dulles, was Secretary
of State, and his brother Allen Dulles, formerly of the Schroder bank, was
head of the CIA.
This friendly environment emboldened our General Draper to pull off a stunt
with his military aid advisery committee. He changed the subject under
study. The following year, the Draper committee recommended that the U.S.
government react to the supposed threat of the "population explosion" by
formulating plans to depopulate the poorer countries. The growth of the
world's non-white population, he proposed, should be regarded as dangerous
to the national security of the United States! Note #3 Note #1
President Eisenhower rejected the recommendation. But in the next decade,
General Draper founded the "Population Crisis Committee" and the "Draper
Fund," joining with the Rockefeller and DuPont families to promote eugenics
as "population control." The administration of President Lyndon Johnson,
advised by Draper on the subject, began financing birth control in the
tropical countries through the Agency for International Development.
General William Draper was George Bush's guru on the population question.
Note #3 Note #2 But there was also Draper's money -- from that uniquely
horrible source -- and Draper's connections on Wall Street and abroad.
Draper's son and heir, William H. Draper III, was co-chairman for finance
(chief of fundraising) of the Bush-for-President national campaign
organization in 1980. With George Bush in the White House, the younger
Draper heads up the depopulation activities of the United Nations
throughout the world.
Draper was vice president of Dillon Read until 1953. During the 1950s and
1960s, the chief executive there was Frederic Brandi, the German who was
Draper's co-director for the Nazi investments and his personal contact man
with the Nazi Steel Trust. Nicholas Brady was Brandi's partner from 1954,
and replaced him as the firm's chief executive in 1971. Nicholas Brady, who
knows where all the bodies are buried, was chairman of his friend George
Bush's 1980 election campaign in New Jersey, and has been United States
Treasury Secretary throughout Bush's presidency. Note #3 Note #3
Bush and Grey
The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) says that surgical
sterilization is the Bush administration's "first choice" method of
population reduction in the Third World. Note #3 Note #4
The United Nations Population Fund claims that 37 percent of contraception
users in Ibero-America and the Caribbean have already been surgically
sterilized. In a 1991 report, William H. Draper III's U.N. agency asserts
that 254 million couples will be surgically sterilized over the course of
the 1990s; and that if present trends continue, 80 percent of the women in
Puerto Rico and Panama will be surgically sterilized. Note #3 Note #5
The U.S. government pays directly for these sterilizations.
Mexico is first among targeted nations, on a list which was drawn up in
July 1991, at a USAID str ategy session. India and Brazil are second and
third priorities, respectively.
On contract with the Bush administration, U.S. personnel are working from
bases in Mexico to perform surgery on millions of Mexican men and women.
The acknowledged strategy in this program is to sterilize those young
adults who have not already completed their families.
George Bush has a rather deep-seated personal feeling about this project,
in particular as it pits him against Pope John Paul II in Catholic
countries such as Mexico. (See Chapter 4 below, on the origin of a
Bush-family grudge in this regard.)
The spending for birth control in the non-white countries is one of the few
items that is headed upwards in the Bush administration budget. As its 1992
budget was being set, USAID said its Population Account would receive $300
million, a 20 percent increase over the previous year. Within this project,
a significant sum is spent on political and psychological manipulations of
target nations, and rather blatant subversion of their religions and
governments. Note #3 Note #6
These activities might be expected to cause serious objections from the
victimized nationalities, or from U.S. taxpayers, especially if the program
is somehow given widespread publicity.
Quite aside from moral considerations, "legal" questions would naturally
arise, which could be summed up: "How does George Bush think he can get
away with this?"
In this matter the President has expert advice. Mr. (Clayland) Boyden Gray
has been counsel to George Bush since the 1980 election. As chief legal
officer in the White House, Boyden Gray can walk the President through the
dangers and complexities of waging such unusual warfare against Third World
populations. Gray knows how these things are done.
When Boyden Gray was four and five years old, his father organized the
pilot project for the present worldwide sterilization program, from the
Gray family household in North Carolina.
It started in 1946. The eugenics movement was looking for a way to begin
again in America.
Nazi death camps such as Auschwitz had just then seared the conscience of
the world. The Sterilization League of America, which had changed its name
during the war to "Birthright, Inc.," wanted to start up again. First they
had to overcome public nervousness about crackpots proposing to eliminate
"inferior" and "defective" people. The League tried to surface in Iowa, but
had to back off because of negative publicity: a little boy had recently
been sterilized there and had died from the operation.
They decided on North Carolina, where the Gray family could play the
perfect host. Note #3 Note #7 Through British imperial contacts, Boyden
Gray's grandfather Bowman Gray had become principal owner of the R.J.
Reynolds Tobacco Co. Boyden's father, Gordon Gray, had recently founded the
Bowman Gray (memorial) Medical School in Winston-Salem, using his inherited
cigarette stock shares. The medical school was already a eugenics center.
As the experiment began, Gordon Gray's great aunt, Alice Shelton Gray, who
had raised him from childhood, was living in his household. Aunt Alice had
founded the "Human Betterment League," the North Carolina branch of the
national eugenical sterilization movement.
Aunt Alice was the official supervisor of the 1946-47 experiment. Working
under Miss Gray was Dr. Claude Nash Herndon, whom Gordon Gray had made
assistant professor of "medical genetics" at Bowman Gray medical school.
Dr. Clarence Gamble, heir to the Proctor and Gamble soap fortune, was the
sterilizers' national field operations chief.
The experiment worked as follows. "All children enrolled in the school
district of Winston-Salem, N.C., were given a special "intelligence test."
Those children who scored below a certain arbitrary low mark were then cut
open and surgically sterilized."
We quote now from the official story of the project: "In Winston-Salem and
in [nearby] Orange County, North Carolina, the [Sterilization League's]
field committee had participated in testing projects to identify school age
children who should be considered for sterilization. The project in Orange
County was conducted by the University of North Carolina and wasfinanced
by a 'Mr. Hanes,' a friend of Clarence Gamble and supporter of the field
work project in North Carolina. The Winston-Salem project was also financed
by Hanes. ["Hanes" was underwear mogul James Gordon Hanes, a trustee of
Bowman Gray Medical School and treasurer of Alice Gray's group]....
"The medical school had a long history of interest in eugenics and had
compiled extensive histories of families carrying inheritable disease. In
1946, Dr. C. Nash Herndon ... made a statement to the press on the use of
sterilization to prevent the spread of inheritable diseases....
"The first step after giving the mental tests to grade school children was
to interpret and make public the results. In Orange County the results
indicated that three percent of the school age children were either insane
or feebleminded.... [Then] the field committee hired a social worker to
review each case ... and to present any cases in which sterilization was
indicated to the State Eugenics Board, which under North Carolina law had
the authority to order sterilization...."
Race science experimenter Dr. Claude Nash Herndon provided more details in
an interview in 1990: Note #3 Note #8
"Alice Gray was the general supervisor of the project. She and Hanes sent
out letters promoting the program to the commissioners of all 100 counties
in North Carolina.... What did I do? Nothing besides riding herd on the
whole thing! The social workers operated out of my office. I was at the
time also director of outpatient services at North Carolina Baptist
Hospital. We would see the [targeted] parents and children there.... I.Q.
tests were run on all the children in the Winston-Salem public school
system. Only the ones who scored really low [were targeted for
sterilization], the real bottom of the barrel, like below 70.
"Did we do sterilizations on young children? Yes. This was a relatively
minor operation.... It was usually not until the child was eight or ten
years old. For the boys, you just make an incision and tie the tube.... We
more often performed the operation on girls than with boys. Of course, you
have to cut open the abdomen, but again, it is relatively minor."
Dr. Herndon remarked coolly that "we had a very good relationship with the
press" for the project. This is not surprising, since Gordon Gray owned the
"Winston-Salem Journal," the "Twin City Sentinel," and radio station WSJS.
In 1950 and 1951, John Foster Dulles, then chairman of the Rockefeller
Foundation, led John D. Rockefeller III on a series of world tours,
focusing on the need to stop the expansion of the non-white populations. In
November 1952, Dulles and Rockefeller set up the Population Council, with
tens of millions of dollars from the Rockefeller family.
At that point, the American Eugenics Society, still cautious from the
recent bad publicity vis-a-vis Hitler, left its old headquarters at Yale
University. The Society moved its headquarters into the office of the
Population Council, and the two groups melded together. The long-time
secretary of the Eugenics Society, Frederick Osborne, became the first
president of the Population Council. The Gray family's child-sterilizer,
Dr. C. Nash Herndon, became president of the American Eugenics Society in
1953, as its work expanded under Rockefeller patronage.
Meanwhile, the International Planned Parenthood Federation was founded in
London, in the offices of the British Eugenics Society.
The undead enemy from World War II, renamed "Population Control," had now
George Bush was U.S. ambassador to the United Nations in 1972, when with
prodding from Bush and his friends, the United States Agency for
International Development first made an official contract with the old
Sterilization League of America. The league had changed its name twice
again, and was now called the "Association for Voluntary Surgical
Contraception." The U.S. government began paying the old fascist group to
ster ilize non-whites in foreign countries.
The Gray family experiment had succeeded.
In 1988, the U.S. Agency for International Development signed its latest
contract with the old Sterilization League (a.k.a. "Association for
Voluntary Sterilization"), committing the U.S. government to spend $80
million over five years.
Having gotten away with sterilizing several hundred North Carolina school
children, "not usually less than eight to ten years old," the identical
group is now authorized by President Bush to do it to 58 countries in Asia,
Africa, and Ibero-America. The group modestly claims it has directly
sterilized only 2 million people, with 87 percent of the bill paid by U.S.
Meanwhile, Dr. Clarence Gamble, Boyden Gray's favorite soap manufacturer,
formed his own "Pathfinder Fund" as a split-off from the Sterlization
League. Gamble's Pathfinder Fund, with additional millions from USAID,
concentrates on penetration of local social groups in the non-white
countries, to break down psychological resistance to the surgical
Notes - Chapter 3
1. Phyllis Tilson Piotrow, "World Population Crisis: The United States
Response" (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1973), "Forward" by George H.W.
Bush, pp. vii-viii.
2. Adolf Hitler, "Mein Kampf" (Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1971), p. 404.
3. "The Ten Richest People in Houston," in "Houston Post Magazine," March
11, 1984. "$150 milion to $250 million from ... inheritance, plus
subsequent investments ... chief heir to a family fortune in oil stock....
As to his financial interests, he is ... coy. He once described one of his
businesses as a company that 'invests in and oversees a lot of smaller
companies ... in a lot of foreign countries.'|"
4. The announcements were made in testimony before a Special Committee of
the U.S. Senate Investigating the National Defense Program. The hearings on
Standard Oil were held March 5, 24, 26, 27, 31, and April 1, 2, 3 and 7,
1942. Available on microfiche, law section, Library of Congress. See also
"New York Times," March 26 and March 27, 1942, and "Washington Evening
Star," March 26 and March 27, 1942.
5. "Ibid.," Exhibit No. 368, printed on pp. 4584-87 of the hearing record.
See also Charles Higham, "Trading With The Enemy" (New York: Delacorte
Press, 1983), p. 36.
6. Confidential memorandum from U.S. Embassy, Berlin, "op. cit.," chapter
2. Sir Henri Deterding was among the most notorious pro-Nazis of the early
7. See sections on Prescott Bush in Darwin Payne, "Initiative in Energy:
Dresser Industries, Inc." (New York: Distributed by Simon and Schuster,
1979) (published by the Dresser Company).
8. William Stamps Farish obituary, "New York Times," Nov. 30, 1942.
9. "A Decade of Progress in Eugenics: Scientific Papers of the Third
International Congress of Eugenics held at American Museum of Natural
History New York, August 21-23, 1932." (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins
Company, September, 1934).
The term "eugenics" is taken from the Greek to signify "good birth" or
"well-born," as in aristocrat. Its basic assumption is that those who are
not "well-born" should not exist.
10. See among other such letters, George Herbert Walker, 39 Broadway, N.Y.,
to W. A. Harriman, London, February 21, 1925, in W.A. Harriman papers.
11. Averell Harriman to Dr. Charles B. Davenport, President, The
International Congress of Eugenics, Cold Spring Harbor, L.I., N.Y.:
January 21, 1932
Dear Dr. Davenport:
I will be only too glad to put you in touch with the Hamburg-American Line
.. they may be able to co-operate in making suggestions which will keep the
expenses to a minimum. I have referred your letter to Mr. Emil Lederer [of
the Hamburg-Amerika executive board in New York] with the request that he
communicate with you.
Davenport to Mr. W.A. Harriman, 59 Wall Street, New York, N.Y.
January 23, 1932
Dear Mr. Harriman:
Thank you very much for your kind letter of January 21st and the action you
took which has resulted at once in a letter from Mr. Emil Lederer. This
letter will serve as a starting point for correspondence, which I hope will
enable more of our German colleagues to come to America on the occasion of
the congresses of eugenics and genetics, than otherwise.
Congressional hearings in 1934 established that Hamburg-Amerika routinely
provided free transatlantic passage for those carrying out Nazi propaganda
chores. See "Investigation of Nazi Propaganda Activities and Investigation
of Certain Other Propaganda Activities," "op. cit.," chapter 2.
12. Alexis Carrel, "Man the Unknown" (New York: Halcyon House, published by
arrangement with Harper & Brothers, 1935), pp. 318-19.
The battle cry of the New Order was sounded in 1935 with the publication of
"Man the Unknown," by Dr. Alexis Carrel of the Rockefeller Institute in New
York. This Nobel Prize-winner said "enormous sums are now required to
maintain prisons and insane asylums.... Why do we preserve these useless
and harmful beings? This fact must be squarely faced. Why should society
not dispose of the criminals and the insane in a more economical manner?
... The community must be protected against troublesome and dangerous
elements.... Perhaps prisons should be abolished.... The conditioning of
the petty criminal with the whip, or some more scientific procedure,
followed by a short stay in hospital, would probably suffice to insure
order. [Criminals, including those] who have ... misled the public on
important matters, should be humanely and economically disposed of in small
euthanasic institutions supplied with proper gases. A similar treatment
could be advantageously applied to the insane, guilty of criminal acts."
Carrel claimed to have transplanted the head of a dog to another dog and
kept it alive for quite some time.
13. Bernhard Schreiber, "The Men Behind Hitler: A German Warning to the
World," France: La Hay-Mureaux, ca. 1975), English language edition
supplied by H. & P. Tadeusz, 369 Edgewere Road, London W2. A copy of this
book is now held by Union College Library, Syracuse, N.Y.
14. Higham, "op. cit.," p. 35.
15. Engagement announced Feb. 10, 1939, "New York Times," p. 20. See also
"Directory of Directors" for New York City, 1930s and 1940s.
16. Higham, "op. cit.," pp. 20, 22 and other references to Schroeder and
Anthony Sutton, "Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler" (Seal Beach: '76
Press, 1976). Sutton is also a good source on the Harrimans.
17. "Washington Evening Star," March 27, 1942, p. 1.
18. Higham, "op. cit." p. 50.
19. "Ibid.," p. 48.
20. "Washington Post," April 29, 1990, p. F4. Higham, "op. cit.," pp. 52-53.
21. Zapata annual reports, 1950s-1960s, Library of Congress microforms.
22. See "Congressional Record" for Bush speech in the House of
Representatives, Sept. 4, 1969. Bush inserted in the r